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Table 3 Placebo-control studies

From: The outcome of control groups in clinical trials of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain: a systematic review

STUDY CONTROL TREATMENT SAMPLE SIZE OF CONTROL GROUP BASELINE PAIN VAS SCORE [mean(sd) or median/100 mm] OUTCOME INTERVAL ABSOLUTE CHANGE (mm on VAS)* RELATIVE CHANGE (%) EFFECT SIZE QUALITY SCORE (Jadad Scale out of 5)
Trock et al., 1994 [49] Placebo EMT, 3–5/week for four weeks 29 62.3 (24.16) 2 weeks
4 weeks
8 weeks
-12
-16.3
-14.7
-19
-26
-24
.44
.67
.54
5
Sator-Katzensch-lager et al., 2003 [50] Control auricular acupuncture, 1 Tx per week for 6 weeks 11 71 (3) 6 weeks
10 weeks
-16
-4
-22
-5
5.3*
.99
5
Gur et al., 2004 [59] Placebo laser, 10 treatments in 2 weeks 26 72 (2.52) 2 weeks
3 weeks
12 weeks
-5.7
-11.7
+.04
-8
-16
+1
.14
.26
+.01
4.5
Rigato et al., 2002 [47] Placebo electrotherapy daily for 15 days 50 High = 80
Med = 48
Low = 36 (no sd's)
7,15 & 45 days At 7 days
High = 0
Med = 0
Low = -8
At 15 days
High = 0
Med = 0
Low = 0
At 45 days
High = 0
Med = +2
Low = +2
At 7 days
High = 0
Med = 0
Low = -22
At 15 days
High = 0
Med = 0
Low = 0
At 45 days
High = 0
Med = +4
Low = +6
  4
Snyder-Mackler et al., 1989 [52] Placebo laser, 3 Tx over 9 days 11 55 (no sd) 9 days -3 -5   4
Foley-Nolan et al., 1990 [29] Placebo EMT for 3 weeks 10 67.5 (median) 3 weeks -12.5 -19   4
Hong et al., 1982 [60] Non-magnetic necklace for 3 weeks 25 71 (14) [converted from 4-point scale] 3 weeks -7 -10 .05 4
Thorsen et al., 1992 [30] Placebo laser, 6 Tx over 2 weeks; then, cross-over 47 21 (median) 3 weeks -10 -48   3.5
Wheeler et al., 1998 [61] 1–2 botox injections 11 65 (5) [NPDS/100*] 3 weeks
16 weeks
-16
-21
-24.6
-32.2
2.2*
2.6*
3
Ceccherelli et al., 1989 [28] Placebo laser for 12 Tx over 24 days 14 29.2 (12.6) 4 weeks
12 weeks
+8.2
+6.4
+28
+22
-.56
-.40
3
Nabeta and Kawakita, 2002 [54] Sham acupuncture, 3 Tx over 3 weeks 17 48.8 (27.9) 4 weeks -2 -4 .07 3
Irnich et al., 2001 [55] Sham laser acupuncture, 5 Tx over 3 weeks 57 57.15 (26.71) 4 weeks -17.28 [10–24.6] -30   3
He et al., 2004 [51] Sham acupuncture, 10 Tx over 4 weeks 12 48 (9) 4 weeks
24 weeks
-12.1
-12.1
-24
-24
1.4
1.4
3
Ozdemir et al., 2001 [53] Placebo laser, daily for 10 days 30 73 (14) 10 days -5 -7 .04 3
TOTAL/AVERAGE   350 56.6   For 0–10 weeks = -5.0 [-8.1, -1.9] mm
For 12–24 weeks = -6.7 [-18.6, 5.2] mm
For 0–10 weeks = -10.6% [-16.4, -4.8]
For 12–24 weeks = -8.3% [-32.4, 15.8]
For 1–10 weeks = .50 [0.10, 0.9]
For 12–24 weeks = .33 [-1.97, 2.6]
 
  1. Caption:
  2. wk = week; Tx = treatment; EMT = electromagnetic therapy; TENS = transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; * = not included in analysis