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Table 8 Etiology categories: Agreement among all four observers for 141 adverse occurrences coded by each reviewer.1

From: Towards standardized measurement of adverse events in spine surgery: conceptual model and pilot evaluation

Etiology Code 2 Category Kappa p-value
1 Error in diagnosis 0.52 0.0000
4 Failure to act on results 0.33 0.0000
5 Technical error 3 0.66 0.0000
6 Error in preparation for operation 0.09 0.0064
7 Error in dose or method of use of a drug 0.21 0.0000
8 Avoidable delay in treatment 0.15 0.0000
9 Inappropriate care 0.06 0.0313
10 Failure to provide indicated prophylactic treatment 0.11 0.0007
11 Inadequate monitoring or follow-up 0.05 0.0738
12 Failure in communication 3 0.80 0.0000
13 Equipment failure 0.33 0.0000
14 Other systems failure 3 0.85 0.0000
15 Unclassified error 0.01 0.3453
16 Patient disease, expected risk (no error) 0.26 0.0000
17 Patient non-compliance (no error) 0.00 0.5206
18 Disease unrelated to spine surgery (no error) 0.22 0.0000
16, 17, or 18 No error (16, 17, or 18) 3 0.61 0.0000
---- Combined (for all categories) 0.35 0.0000
  1. 1 Kappa statistic calculated using "kap" command in STATA Version 8 (College Station, TX). Each observation is assumed to be a subject, the number of raters is fixed (4 raters), and more than two outcomes are possible (18 etiology codes).
  2. 2 None of the 141 adverse occurrences were assigned etiology codes 2 or 3.
  3. 3 These categories show substantial or better agreement, with kappa values = 0.61