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Table 4 Effects of APT and CBT as compared with CT

From: Active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Cognitive-behavioral, physical, or both? First direct post-treatment results from a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN22714229]

Dependent variable CT mean ± SD APT mean difference (95% CI)† CBT mean difference (95% CI)†
RDQ†† 11.40 ± 5.25 0.16 (-1.52 to 1.85) -0.49 (-2.17 to 1.19)
Main complaints†† 54.68 ± 21.79 6.65 (-1.96 to 15.26) 1.48 (-7.04 to 9.99)
Current pain†† 42.31 ± 25.56 -0.45 (-8.41 to 7.52) -6.53 (-14.48 to 1.43)
PRI-T†† 17.53 ± 10.53 1.23 (-2.51 to 4.97) -1.71 (-5.45 to 2.03)
BDI 9.07 ± 6.53 -2.13 (-3.84 to -0.42)* -1.69 (-3.41 to 0.03)
Global improvement†† 4.53 ± 1.33 -0.23 (-0.77 to 0.30) 0.20 (-0.33 to 0.73)
Satisfaction$    
   10th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 9) 64.98 ± 25.30 13.05 (-4.87 to 30.97) -0.99 (-18.55 to 16.56)
   50th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 14) 70.24 ± 25.30 -4.26 (-16.51 to 7.98) -0.89 (-13.16 to 11.28)
   90th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 19) 75.50 ± 25.30 -21.58 (-39.56 to -3.59)* -0.78 (-19.11 to 17.55)
Walking (m)†† 419.33 ± 66.44 -7.80 (-29,60 to 13.99) -22.83 (-44.72 to -0.93)*
Inversion fast walking (1/sec) 0.11 ± 0.02 -0.003 (-0.010 to 0.004) 0.001 (-0.006 to 0.008)
Inversion sit to stand (1/sec) 0.06 ± 0.02 -0.001 (-0.007 to 0.005) -0.004 (-0.010 to 0.002)
Loaded forward reach (cm)†† 58.70 ± 12.80 0.32 (-5.19 to 5.19) 0.21 (-5.30 to 5.71)
Stair climbing (stairs) 84.50 ± 22.31 -1.42 (-8.37 to 5.53) -5.67 (-12.58 to 1.25)
Lifting (stages)†† 4.87 ± 2.99 0.28 (-0.57 to 1.12) -0.19 (-1.04 to 0.64)
  1. † Values are the mean difference between this group and the CT. The CT score is the score at post-treatment.
  2. The mean differences and confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values were estimated adjusting for age, gender, center of treatment, baseline score of outcome measure, duration of functional limitations.
  3. †† Additional correction for relevant prognostic co-variates: RDQ – work status and TSK; Main complaints/Lifting – TSK; Current pain/PRI-T – work status; Global improvement/loaded forward reach – current pain; Walking – radiation and TSK.
  4. $ Data presented for different strata for baseline RDQ, mean/SD for CT estimated by use of regression model. * p < 0.05.
  5. APT = active physical treatment; CBT = cognitive-behavioural treatment; CT = combination treatment. RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire; PRI-T = Pain Rating Index Total score; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.