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Table 1 Baseline variables for the total population and the four therapy groups (total n = 223)

From: Active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Cognitive-behavioral, physical, or both? First direct post-treatment results from a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN22714229]

Variables APT (n = 53) CBT (n = 58) CT (n = 61) WL (n = 51)
Age (years) 42.68 ± 9.06 42.52 ± 9.67 40.67 ± 10.14 40.55 ± 11.17
Gender (% male) 58.5 41.4 62.3 49.0
Education (%)     
   low 67.9 62.1 57.4 62.7
   middle – high 32.1 37.9 42.6 37.3
Work status (%)     
   full time 32.1 36.2 24.6 25.5
   partial sick leave /disability pension 18.9 24.1 32.8 17.6
   full sick leave/disability pension 43.4 31.0 36.1 43.1
   no job/retired 5.7 8.6 6.6 13.7
Duration of LBP (months) 56.91 ± 75.86 68.33 ± 74.21 56.13 ± 67.50 43.75 ± 70.82
Duration of functional limitations (months) 28.85 ± 37.43 49.12 ± 61.40 36.90 ± 53.57 23.55 ± 32.76*
Radiation of pain (%)     
   no radiation 9.4 17.2 13.1 15.7
   above knee 35.8 27.6 42.6 41.2
   below knee 54.7 55.2 44.3 43.1
Previous back surgery (%) 17.0 10.3 14.8 19.6
Trauma preceding LBP (%) 17.0 19.0 11.5 27.5
Sport activity (BPAQ-sport) 2.07 ± 0.67 2.14 ± 0.78 2.04 ± 0.65 2.10 ± 0.67
Leisure activity (BPAQ-leisure) 2.96 ± 0.69 2.79 ± 0.74 2.84 ± 0.60 2.78 ± 0.67
TSK 39.02 ± 6.52 38.72 ± 6.88 39.69 ± 7.08 37.75 ± 6.97
VO2 max (ml/kg/min) 27.26 ± 6.76 28.23 ± 6.69 30.06 ± 7.88 29.32 ± 7.07
SPSI-NPO 13.37 ± 7.42 13.90 ± 6.29 13.34 ± 7.71 15.10 ± 7.66
RDQ 14.15 ± 3.70 13.74 ± 3.65 13.51 ± 3.92 13.96 ± 3.88
Main complaints 74.52 ± 14.59 74.71 ± 16.19 72.44 ± 17.03 77.42 ± 11.35
Current pain 51.23 ± 26.55 48.84 ± 23.51 45.98 ± 23.95 51.02 ± 25.40
PRI-T 18.34 ± 11.32 17.86 ± 9.94 18.08 ± 9.04 17.37 ± 8.52
BDI 10.38 ± 7.62 10.45 ± 7.06 9.75 ± 6.68 9.78 ± 7.67
Walking (m) 375.37 ± 68.03 385.29 ± 75.36 372.40 ± 88.03 383.48 ± 101.75
Fast walking (sec) 9.92 ± 2.27 10.28 ± 2.40 10.31 ± 2.51 10.02 ± 2.80
Sit to stand (sec) 20.98 ± 7.33 22.62 ± 9.99 21.86 ± 7.65 21.19 ± 8.98
Loaded forward reach (cm) 52.04 ± 12.27* 50.12 ± 14.97* 55.00 ± 11.24* 59.62 ± 13.55*
Stair climbing (number of stairs) 72.02 ± 18.22 75.10 ± 24.76 71.26 ± 21.95 78.35 ± 26.90
Lifting (stages) 4.31 ± 2.58 4.29 ± 3.22 4.16 ± 3.05 4.06 ± 2.64
  1. Values presented as means and standard deviation or percentage
  2. * significant differences between therapy groups (p < 0.05)
  3. APT = active physical treatment; CBT = cognitive-behavioural treatment; CT = combination treatment; WL = waiting list; LBP = low back pain; BPAQ = Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire; TSK = Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia; SPSI-NPO = Social Inventory Problem Solving – Negative Problem Orientation; RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire; PRI-T = Pain Raiting Index Total score; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.