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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for associations between each independent variable and back problem in a cohort of young Swedish men. The number of study subjects in the bivariate analyses are shown in the first column and the number of participants in the multivariate analyses was 40,094.

From: Coping and back problems: analysis of multiple data sources on an entire cross-sectional cohort of Swedish military recruits

Independent variable (N) Unadjusted odds ratio Odds ratio adjusted for all variables**
Height   
1(shortest) (12,022) 1 (index) 1 (index)
2 (12,835) 1.0 1.1
3 (9,820) 1.1 1.3
4 (tallest) (10,592) 1.2 1.5
BMI   
underweight (2,877) 1.5 1.2
normal weight (34,104) 1 (index) 1 (index)
overweight (6,487) 1.0 1.0
obese (1,801) 1.0 0.8
Intellectual capacity   
high (10,623) 1 (index) 1 (index)
medium (24,766) 1.5 1.2
low (10,809) 2.1 1.2
Education*   
high (11,108) 1 (index) 1 (index)
medium (8,582) 1.4 1.2
low (28,719) 1.6 1.2
Coping   
high (7,835) 1 (index) 1 (index)
medium (21,800) 3.3 3.2
low (10,459) 6.5 6.9
  1. *Education is divided into high (natural sciences/mathematics), medium (human sciences/language) and low (vocational studies/any other) based on the opportunities these educational strands provide for further studies.
  2. ** Height and BMI are not adjusted for each other as they are interdependent.