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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression analyses including age, sex and binary data of the three investigated predictor variables. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for LBP. Statistically significant findings indicated in bold:

From: Are lifestyle-factors in adolescence predictors for adult low back pain? A cross-sectional and prospective study of young twins

  1994 LBP >30 days past year. n = 588 2002 LBP >30 days past year. n = 636 2002 LBP > 30 days past year in incidence cases* n = 314
Smoking
n = 1,960
Ref: non-smokers
1.77 (1.44–2.17) 1.69 (1.36–2.11) 1.88 (1.32–2.69)
Alcohol consumption
n = 5,349
Ref: Non-drinkers
1.66 (1.20–2.31) 0.74 (0.58–0.94) 0.87 (0.61–1.23)
Overweight
n = 963
Ref: BMI<24
1.38 (1.06–1.79) 1.12 (0.84–1.49) 1.43 (0.90–1.01)
  1. * No LBP in 1994.