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Table 2 Description of the sample – predictor-variables in relation to LBP.

From: Are lifestyle-factors in adolescence predictors for adult low back pain? A cross-sectional and prospective study of young twins

   Status 1994. Baseline/ follow-up. LBP at all (LBP >0 days past year) 1994 Persistent LBP (LBP >30 days past year). 1994 LBP at all (LBP >0 days past year) 2002 Persistent LBP (LBP >30 days past year). 2002
Age 12–15 3,146 / 2,061 447 (14%) 58 (2%) 742 (36%) 197 (10%)
  16–19 3,497 / 2,422 1,303 (37%) 232 (7%) 918 (38%) 213 (9%)
  20–22 2,820 / 2,060 1,343 (48%) 298 (11%) 883 (43%) 226 (11%)
Sex Female 4,873 / 3,676 1,761 (36)% 366 (8%) 1,544 (42%) 424 (12%)
  Male 4,590 / 2,867 1,332 (29%) 222 (5%) 999 (35%) 212 (7%)
Smoking 0 85% / 86% 2346 (30%) 385 (5%) 2,080 (37%) 490 (9%)
  1–10 7% / 7 % 306 (46%) 69 (10%) 195 (44%) 57 (13%)
  11–20 8% / 7% 365 (72%) 107 (15%) 217 (49%) 73 (17%)
  >20 0% / 0% 33 (72%) 9 (30%) 13 (48%) 3 (11%)
Alcohol consumption <0.2 56% / 54% 1084 (24%) 185 (4%) 1181 (38%) 322 (10%)
  0.2–0.6 23% / 24% 793 (43%) 157 (9%) 547 (40%) 130 (9%)
  0.6–1.0 11% / 11% 419 (46%) 81 (9%) 257 (39%) 55 (8%)
  >1.0 10% / 10% 389 (48%) 84 (10%) 238 (42%) 54 (10%)
BMI <17 12% / 12% 163 (15%) 28 (3%) 262 (35%) 74 (10%)
  18–24 78% / 78% 2,459 (34%) 455 (6%) 1,964 (39%) 479 (10%)
  25–29 9% / 9% 376 (45%) 85 (10%) 242 (42%) 59 (10%)
  >29 1% / 1% 58 (49%) 12 (10%) 42 (47%) 11 (12%)