Table 5 Comparison of mechanical properties between whiplash-exposed and control  ligaments. Average (SD) failure force (N), elongation (mm), and energy absorbed (J). Data from all ligaments at the spinal levels C3–C4 through C7-T1 were combined within each group. The average (SD) peak ligament elongation rates were 725 (95) mm/s and 723 (106) mm/s for the whiplash-exposed and control  ligaments, respectively. Statistical differences are indicated as *P < 0.05 while trends are indicated as #P < 0.1.