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Table 5 Comparison of mechanical properties between whiplash-exposed and control [19] ligaments. Average (SD) failure force (N), elongation (mm), and energy absorbed (J). Data from all ligaments at the spinal levels C3–C4 through C7-T1 were combined within each group. The average (SD) peak ligament elongation rates were 725 (95) mm/s and 723 (106) mm/s for the whiplash-exposed and control [19] ligaments, respectively. Statistical differences are indicated as *P < 0.05 while trends are indicated as #P < 0.1.

From: Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

  Control Whiplash-exposed P-value
Failure force 186.0 (107.1) 149.4 (74.0) 0.036*
Failure elongation 4.3 (1.8) 4.0 (1.3) 0.702
Energy absorbed 397.0 (291.6) 308.6 (201.8) 0.078#