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Table 3 Average (SD) stiffness (N/mm) at 25, 50, and 75% of failure force for whiplash-exposed human cervical ligaments. Mechanical property data were obtained at an average peak elongation rate of 725 (SD 95) mm/s. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among ligaments are indicated in the column Significant. A blank entry indicates no significant difference was observed.

From: Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

  Stiffness at 25% Significant Stiffness at 50% Significant Stiffness at 75% Significant
ALL 57.2 (34.5) ISL+SSL 59.3 (35.5) LF,ISL+SSL 60.2 (38.5) LF,ISL+SSL
MTD 61.8 (48.9)   85.9 (72.3) ISL+SSL 104.2 (90.5) ISL+SSL
PLL 55.2 (21.1) ISL+SSL 55.4 (23.9) LF 53.8 (30.1) LF
CL 60.7 (29.3) ISL+SSL 57.6 (28.6) LF,ISL+SSL 52.0 (32.2)  
LF 77.2 (38.8) ISL+SSL 96.5 (51.0) ALL,PLL,CL,ISL+SSL 112.1 (61.8) ALL,PLL,ISL+SSL
ISL+SSL 21.7 (10.1) ALL,PLL,CL,LF 19.1 (9.4) ALL,MTD,CL,LF 15.7 (9.4) ALL,MTD,LF
  1. ALL: anterior longitudinal ligament, MTD: middle-third disc, PLL: posterior longitudinal ligament, CL: capsular ligament, LF: ligamentum flavum, ISL+SSL: interspinous and supraspinous ligaments.