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Table 2 Average (SD) failure force (N), elongation (mm), and energy absorbed (J) for whiplash-exposed human cervical ligaments. Mechanical property data were obtained at an average peak elongation rate of 725 (SD 95) mm/s. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among ligaments are indicated in the column Significant. A blank entry indicates no significant difference was observed.

From: Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

  Failure force Significant Failure elongation Significant Energy absorbed Significant
ALL 132.2 (70.1)   3.0 (0.8) CL,ISL+SSL 0.21 (0.19) CL
MTD 71.6 (59.6) LF 1.4 (0.1) PLL,CL,ISL+SSL 0.04 (0.30) CL
PLL 149.4 (54.1) ISL+SSL 3.9 (1.2) MTD 0.29 (0.13)  
CL 177.5 (73.1) ISL+SSL 4.5 (1.4) ALL,MTD,LF 0.44 (0.25) ALL,MTD,ISL+SSL
LF 204.6 (85.1) MTD,ISL+SSL 3.4 (0.8) CL,ISL+SSL 0.27 (0.11)  
ISL+SSL 67.6 (52.3) PLL,CL,LF 4.9 (1.3) ALL,MTD,LF 0.19 (0.16) CL
  1. ALL: anterior longitudinal ligament, MTD: middle-third disc, PLL: posterior longitudinal ligament, CL: capsular ligament, LF: ligamentum flavum, ISL+SSL: interspinous and supraspinous ligaments.