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Table 2 Gait characteristics in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and age and sex matched able-bodied adults

From: The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on foot function in the early stages of disease: a clinical case series

Parameter Variable Able-bodied Adults (n = 12) Early RA Patients (n = 12) Mean Difference 95%CI Difference
Spatiotemporal Walking speed (m/s) 1.30 (0.17) 1.05 (0.20) -0.24 (-0.41, -0.08)
  Double-support (%GC) 15.8 (3.4) 19.3 (4.7) 3.5 (0, 7.0)
Kinematics Initial foot contact angle (deg) 13.8 (2.4) 14.2 (4.5) -0.4 (-3.5, 2.7)
  Terminal stance heel rise (deg) -85.7 (5.4) -78.9 (9.6) 6.7 (0.1, 13.5)
  Minimum arch height (mm) 31 (5) 29 (7) -2 (-8, 3)
  Peak eversion (deg) -4.4 (3.4) -5.5 (9.8) -1.1 (-7.5, 5.4)
Kinetics/Moments/Power Peak force loading response (BW) 1.11 (0.12) 1.05 (0.12) -0.07 (-0.17, 0.04)
  Peak force terminal stance (BW) 1.12 (0.62) 1.12 (0.61) 0 (-0.05, 0.05)
  Peak plantarflexion moment (Nm/kg) -1.6 (0.1) -1.5 (0.1) 0 (-0.1, 0.1)
  Peak ankle joint power (W/kg) 4.6 (1.6) 3.4 (1.0) -1.3 (-2.4, 0.2)
Foot pressure CoP at 50% foot length (% stance) 44.2 (5.0) 44.3 (10.8) 0.1 (-7.2, 7.4)
  Lesser toes contact area (cm-2) 8.1 (1.9) 7.6 (3.1) -0.5 (-2.7, 1.7)
  Midfoot contact area (cm-2) 19.4 (6.5) 24.6 (7.2) 5.3 (-0.6, 11.1)
  Forefoot peak pressure (kPa) 553 (193) 672 (255) 119 (-73, 311)
  1. CI = confidence interval; BW = body weight (vertical ground reaction force normalised to body weight)