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Table 3 Overall results.

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment for low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

   No. of Subjects    
Model No. of
Contrasts
OMT Control Effect
Size
95% CI P
Median contrasts       
   Fixed-effects model* 8 318 231 -0.30 -0.47 – -0.13 .001
   Random-effects model 8 318 231 -0.31 -0.49 – -0.13 .001
Best-case scenario 8 293 220 -0.37 -0.55 – -0.20 <.001
Worst-case scenario 8 298 221 -0.18 -0.35 – 0.00 .046
Median contrasts, one OMT vs control treatment comparison per trial       
   Gibson [43] active treatment control and Licciardone [46] placebo control 6 237 181 -0.30 -0.49 – -0.10 .003
   Gibson [43] active treatment control and Licciardone [46] no treatment control 6 247 179 -0.39 -0.59 – -0.20 <.001
   Gibson [43] placebo control and Licciardone [46] placebo control 6 238 187 -0.26 -0.45 – -0.06 .01
   Gibson [43] placebo control and Licciardone [46] no treatment control 6 248 185 -0.35 -0.54 – -0.15 <.001
Median contrasts, Cleary [47] trial excluded 7 310 227 -0.29 -0.47 – -0.12 .001
All contrasts 20 727 520 -0.29 -0.40 – -0.17 <.001
  1. CI denotes confidence interval; OMT, osteopathic manipulative treatment.
  2. *Test for homogeneity, P = .37.