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Table 4 Univariate associations between low back and shoulder pain in past 12 months and self reported risk factors

From: Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists

Self reported risk factors Low back pain OR (95% CI) Shoulder pain OR (95% CI)
Strenuous shoulder/hand movements 1.18 (0.69 to 2.01) 1.41 (0.75 to 2.66)
Often use of vibrating tools 1.51 (0.89 to 2.57) 2.89 (1.20 to 6.95) *
Strenuous back postures 1.78 (1.19 to 2.66) * 1.52 (0.91 to 2.53)
Repetitive shoulder/hand movements 1.67 (1.07 to 2.61) * 1.27 (0.73 to 2.22)
High perceived exertion 1.85 (1.25 to 2.72) * 2.46 (1.48 to 4.09) *
High job demand 1.48 (1.01 to 2.17) * 1.87 (1.15 to 3.04) *
Low job control 1.41 (0.78 to 1.67) 1.25 (0.78 to 2.01)
High need for recovery 2.00 (1.35 to 2.96) * 1.97 (1.19 to 3.24) *
Moderate perceived general health 3.19 (2.13 to 4.77) * 2.23 (1.37 to 3.26) *
  1. *x2 test, p < 0.05 OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.