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Table 3 Results of the hierarchy of evidence and quality appraisal stages

From: The postural effects of load carriage on young people – a systematic review

Paper Hierarchy level Appropriate design Specification of subject group Justification of sample size Reliable and valid measurements Sensitive outcome tool Attention to potential biases Real life implications Appraisal score Quality category
a 2a 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 10/16 Moderate
b 1b 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 15/16 High
c 1b 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8/16 Moderate
d 1b 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 9/16 Moderate
e 1b 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8/16 Moderate
f 2a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9/16 Moderate
g 2a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9/16 Moderate
  1. a refers to Chansirinukor et al (2001); b refers to Grimmer et al (2002); c refers to Hong and Brueggemann (2000); d refers to Hong and Cheung (2003); e refers to Kennedy et al (1999); f refers to Pascoe et al (1997); g refers to Wong and Hong (1997).