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Table 1 Symptoms and diagnostic criteria for the most common shoulder diagnoses according to the ICD-10 code

From: Shoulder diagnoses in secondary care, a one year cohort

ICD-10 diagnosis with description Symptoms Diagnostic criteria Radiologic investigations that might increase diagnostic accuracy Number (% of all) in this study References
M75.4 Pain in the shoulder and proximal lateral upper arm exacerbated by activity Typical pain and positive impingement test and pain with isometric abduction or external rotation None 275 (36) [1113]
Subacromial pain syndrome
M79.11 Diffuse pain outside the glenohumeral (GH) joint localised over muscles Negative specific tests, pain when palpating muscles None 132 (17) [11]
Myalgia in shoulder muscles
M75.0 Pain in the shoulder exacerbated by activity. Feeling of stiffness. Reduced passive range of GH motion >30° in two planes None 86 (11) [14, 15]
Adhesive capsulitis
M75.1 Pain in the shoulder. Occasional feeling of weakness Positive impingement test and weakness with isometric abduction or external rotation MRI and US 58 (8) [8, 16]
Full thickness rotator cuff tear
M19.8 Pain on top of shoulder, over the AC joint Pain with joint palpation. Osteoarthritis on X-ray, US or MRI X-ray 31 (4) [11, 18]
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint osteoarthritis
M19.0 Pain in the shoulder. Occasional feeling of stiffness Osteoarthritis on X-ray or MRI X-ray 29 (4) [10, 11]
Glenohumeral (GH) joint osteoarthritis
M24.3 Pain in the shoulder and/or feeling of instability Positive apprehension/relocation test. Labral tear on MRA MRA 24 (3) [11]
Anterior labral tear or instability
M24.3 Pain in the shoulder. Occasional feeling of instability Positive O’Brian test and SLAP lesion on MRA MRA 16 (3) [11]
SLAP lesion
M25.2 Pain in and around the shoulder. Occasional feeling of instability Positive sulcus sign and passive range of GH external rotation >90° None 9 (2) [11]
Multidirectional instability
  1. Main symptoms, diagnostic criteria and radiological investigations that might have increased the accuracy of the diagnostic criteria are listed with and references for the used criteria.
  2. Key: MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MRA, MRI arthrography; SLAP, superior labrum anterior to posterior; US, ultrasound.
  3. The numbers (%) of patients diagnosed with different diagnoses are shown.