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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with traumatic hand injury and HAVS

From: Self-reported cold sensitivity in patients with traumatic hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome - an eight year follow up

Parameter Traumatic hand injury n = 64 HAVS n = 26
Gender (male/female) 50/14 24/2
Age at 8 year follow up1,2 51 (28–86) 61 (31–73)
Smoker (yes/no) 14/50 4/22
Time since injury (years) at 8 year follow up3 8.25 (7.75–9) -
Years of vibration exposure at 1 year follow up1 - 30 (4–46)
CISS score (abnormal/normal)4 17/43 16/8
DASH score at 1 year follow up (0–100)5,1,6 23 (2–60)5 34 (5–70)5
Sense of coherence (SOC, range 13–91) score at 8 year follow up3,7 74 (28–91) 67 (50–91)
HISS at injury1,8 77 (10–305) -
Vibration-induced white fingers (VWF)9 - 15/26
Stage   
0   119
1   5
2   7
3   3
4   0
Sensorineural symptoms - 23/26
Stage   
0   3
1   8
2   7
3   8
Both VWF and sensorineural symptoms10 - 20/26
Impaired vibrotactile sense11 - 22/26
  1. 1Median (IQR).
  2. 2Patients with HAVS were significantly older than patients with traumatic hand injuries (p = 0.004).
  3. 3Median (range).
  4. 4Internal drop out: traumatic hand injury (n = 4), HAVS (n = 2). CISS score >50 = abnormal self-reported cold sensitivity[21].
  5. 5Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). 0 = no disability, 100 = most severe disability[24].
  6. 6Patients with HAVS had significantly higher scores indicating more severe disability (p = 0.001).
  7. 7The 13-item scale. The scores on each item ranges from 1 (never) to 7 (very often). A high score indicates a strong SOC[18].
  8. 8Hand Injury Severity Score[23].
  9. 9Stockholm Workshop scale[25]. 8 out of 11 patients had cold sensitivity without blanching of skin (i.e. equal to 0.5 in a modified Stockholm Workshop scale, VWF). Staging is based on the highest stage on the most injured hand.
  10. 10Patients having both a VWF score ≥ 0.5 and sensorineural score > 0.
  11. 11Sensibility index (SI) < 0.8 in at least one finger[26]. SI-index is a measure of vibrotactile sense and is a ratio of the integrated area below a test curve and a corresponding age reference population. An index > 0.8 is regarded as an indication of abnormality[27].