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Table 4 Pooled mean pain intensity scores (95% CI) for included RCTs and observational cohort studies using random effects meta-analysis

From: The clinical course of low back pain: a meta-analysis comparing outcomes in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies

  Baseline 6 weeks 13 weeks 27 weeks 52 weeks
RCTs      
Pain 48.1 (45.8, 50.5) 34.1 (31.0, 37.2) 27.8 (25.1, 30.6) 26.4 (24.3, 28.6) 28.9 (25.7, 32.0)
Arms, n 165 58 94 97 78
Sample size* 10655 3577 6109 6640 4499
Cohorts      
Pain 47.3 (38.6, 56.0) 31.7 (18.5, 44.8) 30.7 (25.6, 35.8) 24.7 (12.9, 36.4) 26.7 (19.8, 33.6)
n 19 6 10 10 12
Sample size* 13096 6122 6848 5496 6284
  1. *The total number of participants included in trials or cohort studies providing data for the analysis.