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Table 1 Characteristics of included observational cohort studies (n 19)

From: The clinical course of low back pain: a meta-analysis comparing outcomes in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies

Author and country Population and setting Age, mean (y) Female% Type of back pain Sample size
Bakker et al., Netherlands [17] GP consulters 41 48 Acute 97
Bekkering et al., Netherlands [18] Physiotherapy consulters 45 52 Mixed 500
Carey et al., USA [19] GP and chiropractic consulters 42 52 Acute 1628
Chenot et al., Germany [20] GP consulters 44   Mixed 1342
Coste et al., France [21] GP consulters 46 40 Acute 103
Demmelmeir et al., Sweden [22] General population 42 55 Mixed 379
Dunn et al., UK [23] GP consulters    Mixed 206
Grotle et al., Norway [24] Primary care 38 55 Acute 123
Hass et al., Netherlands [25] Community chiropractic clinics 43 53 Mixed 2780
Kovacs et al., Spain [26] GP consulters 46 52 Mixed 648
McGuirk et al., Australia [27] GP consulters 53 57 Acute 83
Miller et al., UK [28] GP consulters 39 60 Mixed 211
Nyiendo et al., USA [29] Medical and chiropractic clinics    Chronic 835
Perreault et al., Canada [30] Physiotherapy departments 51   Mixed 78
Sefarlis et al., Sweden [31] GP consulters 39   Acute 60
Sharma et al., USA [32] Medical and chiropractic clinics consulters 40 50 Mixed 2872
Tamcan et al., Switzerland [33] General population 42 50 Chronic 340
van Hoogan et al., Netherlands [34] GP consulters 44 55 Mixed 443
van Tulder et al., Netherlands [35] GP consulters 41 49 Mixed 368