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Table 2 Factor loading for the HOPE obtained from the exploratory factor analysis*

From: Development and validation of a health belief model based instrument for measuring factors influencing exercise behaviors to prevent osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women (HOPE)

Items (number) Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Factor 8 Factor 9
I often set exercise goals (1) .136 .089 -.003 .785 .094 .039 .080 -.051 .056
I usually have more than one major exercise goal (2) .087 .104 -.075 .787 .072 .163 .053 .101 .092
2. My exercise goals help to increase my motivation for doing exercise (3) .190 .019 .102 .780 .086 .053 .105 .095 .147
I tend to break more difficult exercise goals down into a series of smaller goals (4) .112 .076 -.036 .680 -.033 .247 -.097 .057 .124
I usually keep tract of my progress in meeting my goals (5) .216 .002 .063 .506 -.046 .251 .004 .033 .565
I have developed a series of steps for reaching my exercise goals (6) .123 .080 .014 .356 -.030 .058 -.002 .142 .673
I usually achieve the exercise goals I set for myself (7) .044 .143 -.092 .020 .123 .123 -.103 .003 .489
If I do not reach an exercise goal, I analyze what went wrong (8) .103 .043 -.035 .164 .148 .354 .076 .086 .652
I schedule all events in my life around my exercise routine (9) .081 .271 .000 .145 -.030 .681 .041 .124 .219
I schedule my exercise at specific times each week (10) .038 .187 .010 .294 .100 .752 .030 .076 .062
I plan my weekly exercise schedule (11) -.040 .139 -.024 .255 .101 .798 .055 .157 .059
I write my planned activity sessions in an appointment book or calendar (12) -.047 .125 -.018 -.040 -.058 .642 .068 .053 .318
my chances of getting osteoporosis are high (13) .090 .079 .894 .039 .142 -.118 -.114 .005 .000
Because of my body build, I am more likely to develop osteoporosis (14) .069 -.022 .845 .001 .230 .043 -.075 .044 .060
My family history makes it more likely that I will get osteoporosis (15) .059 .039 .905 .000 .113 -.123 -.054 -.008 -.056
It is extremely likely that I will get osteoporosis (16) .069 -.035 .647 -.039 .186 .153 -.125 .041 -.110
If I had osteoporosis I would be crippled (17) .085 -.036 .250 .050 .679 .145 -.177 .077 .027
It would be very costly if I got osteoporosis (18) .256 .049 .151 .056 .874 -.074 -.079 .007 .076
When I think about osteoporosis I get depressed (19) .268 .042 .146 .059 .852 -.073 -.090 -.010 .086
It would be very serious if I got osteoporosis (20) -.046 -.040 .213 .066 .724 .111 -.194 .109 .033
Regular exercise prevents problems that would happen from osteoporosis (21) .785 .171 .117 .086 .169 -.013 -.055 .147 .048
Regular exercise helps to build strong (22) .892 .178 .054 .125 .107 .023 -.044 .046 .067
Exercising to prevent osteoporosis also improves the way my body looks (23) .815 .216 .016 .192 .158 -.048 -.070 .188 .050
Regular exercise cuts down the chances of broken bones (24) .838 .181 .032 .180 .081 .014 -.067 .049 .038
I feel good about myself when I exercise to prevent osteoporosis (25) .615 .224 .171 .091 .056 .053 .015 .198 .270
I feel like I am not strong enough to exercise regularly (26) -.027 .068 -.228 .098 -.137 .165 .584 .008 -.186
I have no place where I can exercise (27) -.006 -.106 -.106 -.002 -.177 .199 .671 -.145 -.041
My spouse or family discourages me from exercising (28) .038 -.189 .024 .001 -.155 -.023 .603 -.016 -.144
Exercising regularly makes me uncomfortable (29) -.054 .057 -.163 -.006 -.014 .007 .755 .003 .165
Exercising regularly upsets my every day routine (30) -.176 .179 .030 .084 -.045 -.115 .777 .055 .100
I can begin a new or different exercise program (31) .184 .800 -.021 .019 -.034 .050 -.077 .013 .066
I can change my exercise habit (32) .257 .748 .078 .087 .058 .109 -.138 .087 -.004
I do exercise even if they are difficult (33) .184 .802 .024 .049 .025 .196 .135 .094 .092
I do exercise at least 30 minutes each day (34) .087 .670 -.034 .081 .012 .150 -.011 .134 .164
I do the type of exercises that I am supposed to do (35) .177 .690 .023 .103 -.042 .177 .109 .229 .013
I look for new information related to health (36) .157 .063 .068 .051 .042 .100 .008 .799 .083
Keeping healthy is very important for me (37) .425 .099 -.033 .124 .031 .144 -.043 .623 -.092
I try to discover health problems early (38) .156 .267 .062 .084 .133 .028 -.062 .751 .059
I have a regular check-up even when I am not sick (39) -.037 .209 -.055 -.031 -.035 .305 -.022 .524 .332
Eigenvalues 8.259 4.842 2.820 2.430 2.104 1.608 1.522 1.212 1.148
% of variance 21.177 12.416 7.231 6.230 5.396 4.123 3.904 3.108 2.942
  1. *Factor loading equal or greater than 0.4 was considered acceptable.
  2. Factor 1: Benefit, Factor 2: Self-efficacy, Factor 3: Susceptibility, Factor 4: Goal setting, Factor 5: Seriousness, Factor 6: Planning, Factor 7: Barrier, Factor 8: Health motivation, Factor 9: Monitoring.
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