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Table 2 Univariate regression analysis between socio demographic, menstrual status, medical and dietary items and low bone mineral density in women (> 40 years) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

From: Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

Characteristics Women with Low BMD Women with normal BMD OR
N = 212 N = 150 (95% CI)
Age (in years)n = 362    
41 to 50 70 (33.2) 61 (41.2) 1.00
51 to 60 80 (37.9) 71 (48) 0.98 (0.61 - 1.56)
61 to 70 50 (23.7) 13 (8.8) 3.35 (1.66 - 6.75)
70 and above 11 (5.2) 3 (2) 3.19 (0.85 - 11.98)
Marital Status n = 357    
Single2 12 (6.2) 12 (7.3) 1.00
Married 135 (64.6) 101 (67.8) 0.89 (0.14 - 5.43)
Widow 60 (28.7) 37 (24.8) 1.08 (0.17 –6.77)
Education n = 361    
University and above 21 (9.9) 31 (20.8) 1.00
Intermediate& secondary 40 (18.9) 26 (17.4) 2.27 (1.08-4.77)
Primary 89 (42) 49 (32.9) 2.68 (1.39-5.15)
Illiterate 62 (29.2) 43 (28.9) 2.13 (1.08-4.18)
Occupation n = 341    
Doctor 2 (1.4) 1 (0.5) 1.00
Teacher/Administrator 19 (9.5) 16 (11.4) 2.37 (0.19 - 28.67)
Housewife 181 (90) 122 (87.1) 2.96 (0.26 - 33.08)
Husbands Occupation n = 243    
Doctors/teachers 11 (7.6) 17 (15.9) 1.00
Business man 47 (32.4) 33 (30.8) 2.20 (0.91 - 5.30)
Military 25 (17.2) 23 (210.5) 1.68 (0.65 - 4.32)
Administration 62 (42.8) 34 (31.8) 2.81 (1.18 - 6.70)
Type of House n = 339    
Villa 169 (85.4) 120 (85.1) 1.00
Apartment 19 (9.6) 13 (9.2) 1.03 (0.49 - 2.18)
Small house 10 (5.1) 8 (5.7) 0.88 (0.34 - 2.31)
Body Mass Index n = 357    
Normal 21 (10) 9 (6.1) 1.00
Overweight 61 (29) 36 (24.5) 0.72 (0.30 - 1.75)
Obese 128 (61) 102 (69.4) 0.53 (0.23 - 1.22)
Menstrual status n = 329    
Regular 70 (36) 55 (41) 1.00
Perimenopausal 69 (35.4) 48 (35.8) 1.13 (0.67 – 1.88)
Menopause 56 (28.6) 31 (23.2) 1.42 (0.80-2.49)
Exposure to sunlight n = 341    
All the time 45 (22.8) 39 (27) 1.00
Twice-thrice/week 49 (24.9) 34 (23.6) 1.24 (0.67 - 2.30)
Occasionally 83 (42) 58 (40.3) 1.24 (0.72 - 2.13)
Not at all 20 (10.2) 13 (9) 1.33 (0.58 - 3.02)
Renal disease n = 362    
No 200 (94.3) 148 (98.7) 1.00
Yes 12 (5.7) 2 (1.3) 4.44 (1.01 - 20.13)
History of fractures as an adult on trivial fall n = 361    
No 167 (84.3) 131 (92.3) 1.00
Yes 31 (15.7) 11 (7.7) 2.21 (1.07 - 4.56)
Family History of fracture on trivial fall n = 287    
No 155 (96.9) 124 (97.6) 1.00
Yes 5 (3.1) 3 (2.4) 1.33 (0.31 - 5.68)
Eat Cheese (slice) 100 mg n = 362    
Yes 178 (84) 125 (83.3) 1.00
No 34 (16) 25 (16.7) 0.95 (0.54 – 1.68)
Drink Milk (200 ml) n = 362    
Yes 167 (78.8) 120 (80) 1.00
No 45 (21.2) 30 (20) 1.07 (0.64 – 1.81)
Drink Laban (200 ml) n = 362    
Yes 163 (76.9) 135 (90) 1.00
No 49 (23.1) 15 (10) 2.70 (1.45 – 5.04)
Drink Green Tea n = 362    
Yes 185 (87.3) 140 (93.3) 1.00
No 27 (12.7) 10 (6.7) 2.04 (0.95 - 4.36)
Drink Arabic coffee n = 362    
Yes 177 (83.5) 137 (91.3) 1.00
No 35 (16.5) 13 (8.7) 2.08 (1.06 - 4.09)