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Table 2 Time-trends in moderate-severe preoperative pain and functional limitation

From: Are outcomes after total knee arthroplasty worsening over time? A time-trends study of activity limitation and pain outcomes

  1993-1995 (n ~ 1,510)* 1996-1998 (n ~ 1,646)* 1999-2001 (n ~ 1539)* 2002-2005 (n ~ 2,480)* Absolute Difference (period 1 -period 4) p-value for time-trend
Preoperative walking limitations       <0.001
  None/Mild 25.7% 25.9% 32.2% 31.4%   
  Moderate/Severe 74.3% 74.1% 67.8% 68.6% -5.7%  
Preoperative stairs limitations       0.007
  None/Mild 14.4% 15.5% 16.7% 12.7%   
  Moderate/Severe 85.6% 84.5% 83.3% 87.3% +1.7%  
Preoperative chair limitations       <0.001
  None/Mild 58.4% 65.3% 71.2% 76.8%   
  Moderate/Severe 41.6% 34.7% 28.8% 23.2% -18.4%  
Preoperative walking aids       0.025
  No/mild dependence 70.9% 71.9% 72.0% 75.3%   
  Moderate dependence 18.3% 16.4% 16.7% 15.4% -2.9%  
  Complete dependence or unable to walk 10.8% 11.7% 11.3% 9.3% -1.5%  
Preoperative overall ADL limitations       <0.001
  None/Mild 24.8% 27.9% 34.6% 32.1%   
  Moderate/Severe 75.2% 72.1% 65.4% 67.9% -7.3%  
Preoperative pain       <0.001
  None/Mild/Stairs/Stairs and walking 35.7% 39.4% 41.8% 33.0%   
  Moderate/Severe 64.3% 60.6% 58.2% 67.0% +2.7%  
  1. ADL, activities of daily living.
  2. *Missingness ranged from 1% to 3% for various variables, since not all the patients answered each question on the survey.