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Table 1 Spinal range of motion of the 3 fixation systems

From: Biomechanical testing of a unique built-in expandable anterior spinal internal fixation system

ROM (°) Status Expandable device
(n = 6)
Z-plate (n = 6) Kaneda (n = 6) p
Flexion Normal 9.64 (0.81) 9.98 (1.34) 9.49 (0.94) 0.717
Injury 17.73 (3.67)a 19.02 (3.12)a 19.18 (3.21)a 0.718
Internal fixation 5.72 (0.44)ab 5.70 (0.50)ab 5.63 (0.65)ab 0.957
Extension Normal 8.45 (0.52) 8.45 (0.43) 8.48 (0.44) 0.994
Injury 13.51 (2.21)a 13.50 (2.53)a 13.43 (2.25)a 0.998
Internal fixation 5.25 (0.28)ab 5.14 (0.31)ab 5.12 (0.19)ab 0.671
Left bending Normal 8.71 (0.30) 8.78 (0.27) 8.55 (0.41) 0.484
Injury 18.07 (3.66)a 18.23 (3.81)a 18.87 (4.22)a 0.932
Internal fixation 5.50 (0.21)ab 5.37 (0.21)ab 5.04 (0.13)*†ab 0.002
Right bending Normal 8.35 (0.37) 8.47 (0.42) 8.43 (0.39) 0.869
Injury 18.45 (3.72)a 18.69 (3.80)a 19.05 (2.54)a 0.955
Internal fixation 5.01 (0.12)ab 5.05 (0.14)ab 5.04 (0.11)ab 0.887
Left axial rotation Normal 7.11 (0.40) 6.97 (0.34) 7.07 (0.28) 0.769
Injury 19.56 (2.98)a 19.05 (3.22)a 19.04 (3.26)a 0.948
Internal fixation 4.53 (0.42)ab 5.23 (0.30)*ab 5.02 (0.15)*ab 0.005
Right axial rotation Normal 6.95 (0.35) 6.91 (0.31) 6.84 (0.44) 0.883
Injury 19.60 (3.18)a 18.65 (3.41)a 19.41 (3.35)a 0.873
Internal fixation 4.49 (0.47)ab 5.23 (0.20)*ab 5.08 (0.17)*ab 0.002
  1. ROM, range of motion.
  2. Data are presented by mean and standard deviation.
  3. *Indicates a significant difference compared to the expandable device group.
  4. †Indicates a significant difference compared to the Z-Plate group.
  5. aIndicates a significant difference compared to the normal state within a group (all, p <0.001).
  6. bIndicates a significant difference compared to the injured state within group (all, p <0.001).