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Table 4 Associations with type of analgesia prescribed at new consultation for musculoskeletal pain in those prescribed an analgesic

From: Pain medication management of musculoskeletal conditions at first presentation in primary care: analysis of routinely collected medical record data

Model   RRR [95% CI]
Fixed effects   Weak-moderate analgesics Strong analgesics NSAIDs
  n Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Age Group        
30-44 224 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
15-29 448 0.33 [0.19, 0.57] 0.32 [0.18, 0.57] 0.20 [0.10, 0.38] 0.20 [0.10, 0.40] 0.30 [0.20, 0.45] 0.30 [0.20, 0.46]
45-59 428 1.07 [0.67, 1.17] 1.32 [0.81, 2.15] 0.79 [0.48, 1.30] 1.04 [0.62, 1.78] 0.81 [0.56, 1.18] 0.83 [0.54, 1.22]
60-74 181 0.87 [0.51, 1.46] 1.19 [0.67, 2.13] 0.42 [0.22, 0.78] 0.71 [0.35, 1.42] 0.34 [0.21, 0.53] 0.35 [0.22, 0.57]
75+ 63 0.76 [0.40, 1.47] 1.01 [0.50, 2.05] 0.11 [0.03, 0.37] 0.18 [0.05, 0.64] 0.04 [0.02, 0.11] 0.05 [0.02, 0.13]
Gender        
Male 793 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 551 1.32 [0.94, 1.86] 1.45 [1.02, 2.09] 1.10 [0.74, 1.62] 1.31 [0.85, 2.01] 0.77 [0.58, 1.01] 0.95 [0.70, 1.28]
Previous musculoskeletal consultationa        
No 1181 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 163 1.10 [0.64, 1.90] 0.86 [0.47, 1.58] 1.23 [0.67, 2.27] 0.98 [0.49, 1.95] 1.24 [0.80, 1.93] 0.93 [0.57, 1.54]
Previous analgesic prescriptionb        
No 1100 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 244 1.64 [1.03, 2.61] 1.88 [1.11, 3.10] 1.49 [0.88, 2.56] 1.72 [0.94, 3.16] 1.58 [1.07, 2.35] 1.74 [1.11, 2.71]
Pain Region        
Back 465 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Knee 144 0.13 [0.06, 0.26] 0.11 [0.05, 0.23] 0.08 [0.03, 0.21] 0.08 [0.03, 0.23] 0.54 [0.34, 0.87] 0.65 [0.40, 1.08]
Hip 68 0.72 [0.29, 1.77] 0.61 [0.24, 1.55] 0.53 [0.19, 1.48] 0.62 [0.21, 1.81] 1.18 [0.55, 2.56] 1.59 [0.71, 3.55]
Foot and Ankle 94 0.21 [0.09, 0.47] 0.17 [0.07, 0.39] 0.11 [0.04, 0.35] 0.10 [0.03, 0.32] 0.63 [0.37, 1.12] 0.61 [0.34, 1.10]
Arm 105 0.12 [0.05, 0.26] 0.10 [0.05, 0.23] 0.02 [0.00, 0.14] 0.02 [0.00, 0.13] 0.40 [0.24, 0.67] 0.40 [0.24, 0.69]
Shoulder 129 0.22 [0.11, 0.45] 0.18 [0.09, 0.37] 0.21 [0.10, 0.47] 0.18 [0.08, 0.40] 0.62 [0.38, 1.05] 0.56 [0.33, 0.96]
Neck 93 0.49 [0.23, 1.06] 0.50 [0.23, 1.12] 0.76 [0.35, 1.61] 0.83 [0.37, 1.84] 0.81 [0.43, 1.54] 0.82 [0.42, 1.62]
Other/unspecified 246 0.36 [0.22, 0.57] 0.32 [0.20, 0.53] 0.17 [0.10, 0.32] 0.18 [0.10, 0.34] 0.34 [0.22, 0.51] 0.38 [0.25, 0.59]
Comorbidityc        
Yes 63 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 1281 1.18 [0.57, 2.44] 1.49 [0.68, 3.26] 1.18 [0.50, 2.76] 1.40 [0.56, 3.53] 1.89 [1.30, 3. 57] 1.89 [0.96, 3.73]
Deprivation        
Most 624 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 508 0.85 [0.58, 1.26] 0.75 [0.49, 1.13] 0.85 [0.58, 1.33] 0.76 [0.47, 1.22] 1.17 [0.86, 1.61] 1.19 [0.85, 1.67]
Least 212 0.74 [0.44, 1.23] 0.58 [0.33, 1.01] 0.58 [0.31, 1.09] 0.45 [0.23, 0.88] 1.02 [0.68, 1.54] 1.00 [0.64, 1.56]
Staff category        
Other 227 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
GP 1117 0.79 [0.47, 1.04] 0.81 [0.47, 1.39] 1.86 [1.12, 3.09] 1.74 [1.01, 3.02] 1.25 [0.84, 1.86] 1.17 [0.77, 1.79]
Random effect Adjusted VARIANCE [standard error]
Practice   0.27 [0.13]
  1. amusculoskeletal consultation 12–24 months before their 2006 consultation.
  2. bprescribed pain medication 12–24 months before their 2006 consultation.
  3. cdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, gastro-intestinal, or neoplasm.
  4. Bold indicates p < 0.05 in adjusted analysis. Reference is prescription of basic analgesic.