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Table 3 Associations with prescription of any analgesic at new consultation for musculoskeletal pain

From: Pain medication management of musculoskeletal conditions at first presentation in primary care: analysis of routinely collected medical record data

Model OR [95% CI]
Fixed effects Unadjusted Adjusted Adjusted p-value
Age Group    
30-44 1.00 1.00 -
15-29 0.65 [0.53, 0.80] 0.69 [0.56, 0.85] <0.001
45-59 1.12 [0.94, 1.34] 1.23 [1.02, 1.49] 0.025
60-74 1.28 [1.01, 1.64] 1.51 [1.17, 1.95] 0.002
75+ 1.85 [1.23, 2.78] 2.28 [1.49, 3.49] <0.001
Gender    
Male 1.00 1.00 -
Female 1.00 [0.87, 1.15] 1.02 [0.88, 1.19] 0.780
Previous musculoskeletal consultationa    
No 1.00 1.00 -
Yes 0.89 [0.72, 1.09] 0.83 [0.66, 1.05] 0.119
Previous analgesic prescriptionb    
No 1.00 1.00 -
Yes 1.24 [1.03, 1.49] 1.24 [1.01, 1.54] 0.045
Pain Region    
Back 1.00 1.00 -
Knee 0.59 [0.46, 0.77] 0.56 [0.43, 0.72] <0.001
Hip 0.38 [0.27, 0.52] 0.35 [0.25, 0.49] <0.001
Foot and Ankle 0.55 [0.40, 0.74] 0.52 [0.38, 0.71] <0.001
Arm 0.40 [0.30, 0.54] 0.39 [0.29, 0.53] <0.001
Shoulder 0.90 [0.67, 1.20] 0.81 [0.60, 1.08] 0.155
Neck 0.58 [0.43, 0.79] 0.57 [0.42, 0.78] <0.001
Other/unspecified 0.32 [0.26, 0.39] 0.29 [0.24, 0.37] <0.001
Comorbidityc    
Yes 1.00 1.00 -
No 0.64 [0.44, 0.92] 0.77 [0.52, 1.13] 0.217
Deprivation    
Most 1.00 1.00 -
Medium 0.85 [0.73, 1.01] 0.80 [0.67, 0.95] 0.012
Least 0.77 [0.63, 0.95] 0.69 [0.55, 0.86] 0.001
Staff category    
Other 1.00 1.00 -
GP 0.85 [0.70, 1.02] 0.85 [0.69, 1.04] 0.108
Random effect   VARIANCE  
Practice 0.08 [0.03, 0.21] 0.09 [0.03, 0.23] <0.001
  1. amusculoskeletal consultation 12–24 months before their 2006 consultation.
  2. bprescribed pain medication 12–24 months before their 2006 consultation.
  3. cdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, gastro-intestinal, or neoplasm.