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Table 1 Characterization of tests

From: Reliability of movement control tests on the cervical spine

  Characterization of tests Correct Not correct Performance Camera position
Rotation “Move your head to the right and back to middle position, to the left and back to the middle. Then move your head once through the whole range without stopping in the middle position”. Nose stays horizontal Evasive head movement in protraction, extension/lateral flexion or flexion Sitting Frontal
   No lateral flexion Non-rhythmic movement: staccato   
   Continuous movements    
Lateral flexion “Decline your head to the right and back to the middle, then to the left and back to the middle. Then move once from left to the right without stopping in the middle”. Nose stays in the middle Rotation Sitting Frontal
   No rotation Shoulder elevation   
   No shoulder elevation Non-rhythmic movement: staccato   
   Continuous movements Chin heading   
Extension CTJ “Draw in your chin like a little nod movement and then try to look to the ceiling”. No chin heading Head protraction Sitting Lateral 90°
   Slight global extension in CTJ Chin heading   
   No massive distinctive extension in one segment Shoulder elevation/protraction   
Nod movement on the wall “Lean against the wall and do a small nod movement (say yes) but leave the head on the wall”. Head moves up on the wall Head protraction Standing Lateral 90°
   Draw in chin Head moves away from the wall   
   Flattening of the lordosis Shoulder elevation/protraction   
    Inability to draw in chin   
Upper cervical spine “Tilt your head to the side and rotate it then to the ceiling.” Visible lateral flexion and rotation Head protraction Sitting Frontal
   No abolishment of lateral flexion Shoulder elevation   
    Further going movement in the cervical spine   
Flexion/Extension full range “Bring your chin to the breastbone and move your head in extension (whole movement)”. Visible expansion of mid cervical spine while flexion Ventral head translation while flexion Sitting Lateral 90°
   Rotation axis in the ear Deficient upper cervical spine flexion   
   Round movements without protraction    
Upper body forward - backward “Lean forward with straight upper body. Lean your upper body back, stay sitting straight and come back”. Minimal chin heading Cervical or thoracic spine flexion or extension Sitting Lateral 90°
   No evasive movement in the thoracic spine Shoulder elevation/protraction   
   No movement in the cervical spine    
Bilateral shoulder elevation “Lift both shoulders to the ears”. Minimal chin heading Cervical spine protraction Sitting Lateral 90° and Frontal
   Symmetric shoulder elevation Any kind of evasive movements   
Unilateral arm flexion right and left “Lift your straight arm up”. Minimal chin heading Cervical or thoracic spine flexion or extension Sitting Lateral 90° from the opposite side
   No evasive movement in the thoracic spine Shoulder elevation/protraction   
   No movement in the cervical spine Evasive movement in head rotation   
Arm flexion 90° with weight “Lift up the weight with straight arms to 90° breast height and bring the weight with straight arms back”. Shoulders stays down Head protraction Sitting Lateral 90°
   Head stays still Chin heading   
   Straight line of vision Extension of cervical spine   
    Shoulder elevation   
Forward bending in Standing “Bend forward and straighten up again”. Slight extension Head protraction Standing Lateral 90°
   Minimal shoulder protraction Extension of cervical spine   
   Look towards the ground    
Neck flexion in supine position “Draw in your chin and lift your head off the floor”. Round movements Head protraction Supine Lateral 90°
   No tremor Chin heading   
   No loss of upper cervical flexion Tremor   
    Inability to lift the head   
    Inability to draw in chin   
Pro/retraction “Move your chin forward and backward”. Horizontal nose-ear line Shoulder elevation/protraction Sitting Lateral 90°
   No cervical spine extension while retraction Flexion of thoracic spine   
    Forward-backward movement of upper body   
  1. CTJ:Cervicalthoracic Junction.