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Table 2 Inter-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests of the spine (continuous variables)

From: Screening of the spine in adolescents: inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests

Examination (missing values) Measurement error Reliability
  Range (cm) đ (cm) LoA (cm) SEoM ICC [2, 1] (95% CI)
General mobility      
  Lateral flexion FFD R (1) 28.5, 57.5 2.56 -9.8, 15.0 4.4 0.47 (0.29, 0.62)
  L 32.5, 58.5 1.38 -9.1, 11.9 3.7 0.57 (0.43, 0.69)
  Forward flexion FFD (3) 0, 32.0 -0.72 -9.0, 7.6 2.9 0.91 (0.87, 0.94)
  1. Range = lowest and highest measured value; đ = mean difference between ratings (systematic error); LoA = Limits of Agreement; SEoM = standard error of measurement; CI = confidence interval; FFD = finger-floor-distance; R = right; L = left; ICC = interclass correlation coefficient. Clinically acceptable ICC in bold.