Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Inter-rater reliability of commonly used clinical tests of the spine (binary variables)

From: Screening of the spine in adolescents: inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of commonly used clinical tests

Test (missing values) Prevalence of positive findings Agreement Reliability
  Rater 1 Rater 2   
  % (n) % (n) Pa(%) Kappa (95% CI)
Scoliosis     
  Shoulder height 32.4 (36) 35.1 (39) 59.5 0.20 (0.10, 0.28)
  Adam’s forward bend test (1) 11.7 (13) 7.3 (8) 88.2 0.32 (0.04, 0.60)
Hypermobility     
  Knee R 2.7 (3) 9.0 (10) 90.1 0.12 (-0.15, 0.38)
  L 1.8 (2) 3.6 (4) 96.4 0.32 (-0.17, 0.81)*
  Elbow R 18.0 (20) 17.1 (19) 88.3 0.60 (0.40, 0.79)
  L 22.5 (25) 24.3 (27) 82.0 0.50 (0.31, 0.69)
  Thumb R 9.9 (11) 9.9 (11) 94.6 0.70 (0.47, 0.93)
  L 12.6 (14) 7.2 (8) 94.6 0.70 (0.48, 0.92)
  Fifth finger R 2.7 (3) 0.9 (1) 98.2 0.49 (-0.11, 1.00)*
  L 3.6 (4) 0.9 (1) 97.3 0.39 (-0.15, 0.93)*
Trunk flexion (3) 1.8 (2) 1.8 (2) 100.0 1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*
Beighton score ≥ 4 6.3 (7) 4.5 (5) 96.4 0.65 (0.33, 0.97)
Beighton score ≥ 5 2.7 (3) 3.6 (4) 97.3 0.56 (0.11, 1.00)*
Intersegmental mobility     
  Restriction Cx 62.2 (69) 91.0 (101) 62.2 0.06 (-0.08, 0.19)
  Tx 18.9 (21) 48.7 (54) 61.3 0.21 (0.07, 0.36)
  Lx 52.3 (58) 46.9 (52) 62.2 0.25 (0.07, 0.43)
  SI 4.5 (5) 22.5 (25) 80.2 0.21 (0.02, 0.40)
  Pain response Cx 31.5 (35) 47.8 (53) 74.8 0.49 (0.33, 0.64)
  Tx 12.6 (14) 27.0 (30) 82.0 0.45 (0.26, 0.64)
  Lx 30.6 (34) 25.2 (28) 87.4 0.69 (0.54, 0.84)
  SI 5.4 (6) 8.1 (9) 95.5 0.64 (0.36, 0.93)
End range pain     
  Lumbar R lat flex (2) 2.7 (3) 7.3 (8) 93.6 0.34 (-0.03, 0.70)*
  L lat flex (2) 4.6 (5) 8.2 (9) 92.7 0.39 (0.06, 0.73)
  Flex (1) 7.2 (8) 5.5 (6) 95.5 0.59 (0.27, 0.92)
  Ext (4) 18.4 (20) 27.5 (30) 83.2 0.54 (0.35, 0.72)
  Cervical R rot (1) 0.9 (1) 5.4 (6) 95.5 0.27 (-0.15, 0.70)*
  L rot (1) 0.9 (1) 4.5 (5) 96.4 0.32 (-0.16, 0.80)*
  Flex (2) 1.8 (2) 4.6 (5) 95.4 0.27 (-0.17, 0.71)*
  Ext (3) 4.5 (5) 2.8 (3) 94.4 0.22 (-0.18, 0.63)*
  1. P a  = percentage of agreement; Cx = cervical spine; Tx = thoracic spine; Lx = lumbar spine; SI = sacroiliac joints; R = right; L = Left.
  2. *The cell size of positive findings is ≤5, so the Kappa values should be interpreted with caution. Clinically acceptable Kappa values in bold.