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Table 3 (a) Hazard ratios (HR) of risk factors associated with survival time using Cox model, (b) sub-distribution hazard ratios (sHR) of risk factors associated with complication-free time using Fine and Grays model based on competing risk analysis

From: Mortality and complications of hip fracture in young adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study

  Survival time Complication-free time
  Crudea Adjustedb Crudea Adjustedb
HR (95% CI) p- value HR (95% CI) p- value sHR (95% CI) p- value sHR (95% CI) p- value
Age 1.11 (1.08–1.14) <0.001 1.08 (1.05–1.10) <0.001 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 0.275 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.391
Gender         
  Female 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  Male 1.87 (1.30–2.67) <0.001 1.60 (1.11–2.31) 0.012 0.97 (0.85-1.12) 0.683 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.584
Trochanteric 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
Cervical 0.68 (0.52–0.88) 0.003 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 0.196 1.76 (1.56-2.00) <0.001 1.81 (1.60-2.06) <0.001
Hemiarthroplasty 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
Internal fixation 0.52 (0.31–0.87) 0.013 0.87 (0.50–1.50) 0.610 0.69 (0.53-0.93) 0.011 0.93 (0.70-1.26) 0.632
CCI No.         
  0 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
  1 5.27 (3.70–7.51) <0.001 4.08 (2.84–5.86) <0.001 1.51 (1.19-1.89) <0.001 1.62 (1.27-2.03) <0.001
  ≥ 2 19.19 (14.11–26.11) <0.001 14.37 (10.43–19.81) <0.001 1.59 (1.16-2.12) 0.003 1.68 (1.22-2.26) 0.001
  1. aCrude HR/sHR: univariable Cox model/ Fine and Gray’s model.
  2. bAdjusted HR/sHR: multivariable Cox model/ Fine and Gray’s model including age, gender, fracture type, operation type and CCI No.