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Table 9 Individual, physical and psychosocial factors associated with LBP disability among Botswana school teachers

From: Low back pain among school teachers in Botswana, prevalence and risk factors

Risk factorsa Odds ratio (OR) 95% CI confidence intervals (95% CI) P value
Gender    
Male 1   
Female 2.47 1.52-3.99 <0.001
Age (years)    
≤30 1   
31-40 1.39 0.77-2.51 0.280
41-50 1.53 0.74-3.20 0.255
>50 1.03 0.39-2.73 0.954
Body mass index    
<18.5 1   
18.5-24.9 1.19 0.49-2.88 0.707
25.0-29.9 1.63 0.66-4.00 0.291
≥30 1.80 0.72-4.49 0.208
Education level    
Certificate 1   
Diploma 0.88 0.39-2.02 0.769
Bachelor degree 0.53 0.22-1.29 0.160
Previous injury    
No 1   
Yes 3.01 1.92-4.74 <0.001
Tobacco smoking    
Never smoked 1   
Ex-smoker 0.36 0.13-1.02 0.054
Current smoker 1.64 0.53-5.09 0.393
School level    
Primary school 1   
Junior secondary 0.99 0.63-1.57 0.974
Senior secondary 0.83 0.38-1.85 0.656
Length of employment (years)    
≥10 1   
11-20 1.20 0.73-1.97 0.484
21-30 1.18 0.59-2.36 0.631
>30 1.22 0.35-4.34 0.755
Much physical effort    
No 1   
Yes 1.31 0.82-2.07 0.256
Lifting heavy loads    
No 1   
Yes 0.93 0.56-1.55 0.776
Rapid physical activity    
No 1   
Yes 1.31 0.85-2.03 0.220
Awkward body position    
No 1   
Yes 1.06 0.65-1.72 0.811
Awkward arm position    
No 1   
Yes 1.57 0.98-2.51 0.062
Psychosocial job demands    
Low 1   
High 1.31 0.79-2.17 0.295
Job insecurity    
Low 1   
High 1.31 0.86-1.98 0.211
Supervisor support    
Low 1   
High 0.74 0.50-1.09 0.123
  1. aRisk factors evaluated simultaneously using logistic regression and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). All OR adjusted for gender and age. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) are marked in bold.