Skip to main content

Table 6 Individual factors associated with LBP disability among Botswana school teachers

From: Low back pain among school teachers in Botswana, prevalence and risk factors

Risk factorsa Minimal disability Moderate/severe disability/crippled Total P value
  % % %  
Gender     <0.001
Male 27.7 14.5 23.3  
Female 72.3 85.5 76.7  
Age     <0.001
≤30 23.5 13.3 20.2  
31-40 38.4 35.3 37.4  
41-50 29.1 40.1 32.7  
>50 9.0 11.3 9.7  
Body mass index     <0.001
<18.5 5.6 4.1 5.1  
18-24.9 46.3 30.3 41.1  
25-29.9 27.2 33.0 29.1  
≥30 21.0 32.6 24.7  
Marital status     0.337
Single 52.7 47.9 51.1  
Married 41.7 45.1 42.8  
Separated/divorced/widowed 5.6 6.9 6.0  
Educational level     <0.001
Certificate 3.7 7.6 5.0  
Diploma 55.5 64.0 58.3  
Bachelors’ degree 40.8 28.4 36.7  
Number of children less than 6 years     1.000
1 72.3 71.8 72.2  
≥2 27.7 28.2 27.8  
Previous injury     <0.001
No 88.3 74.4 83.7  
Yes 11.7 25.6 16.3  
Tobacco smoking     0.022
Never smoked 91.0 95.6 92.5  
Ex-smokers 6.2 2.5 5.0  
Current Smokers 2.8 1.9 2.5  
Hours of physical exercise per week (h)     0.700
≤5 88.8 90.1 89.2  
>5 11.2 9.9 10.8  
School level     <0.001
Primary school 55.0 69.7 59.9  
Junior secondary 33.2 25.2 30.6  
Senior secondary 11.7 5.0 9.5  
Length of employment (years)     0.001
≤10 50.9 38.5 46.8  
11-20 32.0 37.2 33.7  
21-30 15.3 20.2 16.9  
>30 1.9 4.1 2.6  
Working hours per week (hours)     1.000
40 85.0 85.2 85.1  
>40 15.0 14.8 14.9  
Number of children taught     0.060
≤25 12.8 8.2 11.3  
26-30 15.5 14.8 15.2  
31-35 28.3 30.6 29.0  
36-40 32.5 38.5 34.4  
>40 11.0 7.9 10.0  
Extracurricular activities     0.309
No 35.1 33.9 33.9  
Yes 64.9 68.5 66.1  
  1. aStatistical associations between independent variables and LBP disability was evaluated using chi-squared. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) are marked in bold.