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Table 5 Risk factors for LBP among Botswana teachers

From: Low back pain among school teachers in Botswana, prevalence and risk factors

Risk factorsa Logistic OR(95% CI) Corrected OR (95% CI) P value
Gender    
Male 1 1  
Female 1.51 (1.14-2.00) 1.42 (1.12-1.77) 0.004
Age (years)    
≤30 1 1  
31-40 1.25 (0.89-1.75) - 0.203
41-50 1.56 (1.08-2.24) 1.47 (1.07-1.97) 0.017
>50 1.46 (0.83-2.55) - 0.185
Previous injury    
No 1 1  
Yes 9.67 (4.94-18.93) 1.92 (1.74-2.02) 0.001
Hours of physical exercise per week (h)    
≤5 1 1  
>5 0.63 (0.43-0.93) 0.64 (0.45-0.93) 0.021
Much physical effort    
No 1   
Yes 1.10 (0.81-1.49) - 0.539
Rapid physical activity    
No 1   
Yes 1.12 (0.82-1.53) - 0.475
Awkward body position    
No 1   
Yes 1.09 (0.75-1.59) - 0.649
Awkward arm position    
No 1 1  
Yes 1.81 (1.24-2.62) 1.39 (1.14-1.63) 0.002
Psychosocial job demands    
Low 1 1  
High 1.40 (1.02-1.93) 1.34 (1.02-1.76) 0.040
Job dissatisfaction    
Low 1   
High 1.23(0.95-1.60) - 0.119
  1. aRisk factors evaluated simultaneously using logistic regression and expressed as Logistic Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). All OR adjusted for gender and age.
  2. bOdds ratios with statistically significant results corrected using the formula of Zhang & Kai[30]. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) are marked in bold.