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Table 3 Muscle strength

From: A 3-year school-based exercise intervention improves muscle strength - a prospective controlled population-based study in 223 children

Girls
  Baseline Between-group differences baseline Annual changes Between-group differences annual changes
  Cases (n = 47) Controls (n = 46) Adjusted difference (95% CI) P1-value P2-value Cases (n = 47) Controls (n = 46) Adjusted difference (95% CI) P3-value P4-value
Anthropometry (kg)
Height (cm) 128.0 (5.2) 129.9 (7.9) -0.5 (-2.8, 1.9) 0.18 0.70 6.2 (5.9, 6.5) 6.0 (5.7, 6.3) 0.3 (-0.1, 0.03) 0.48 0.09
Weight (kg) 27.6 (5.5) 27.8 (5.6) -0.2 (-2.1, 2.5) 0.90 0.84 4.1 (3.6, 4.5) 3.5 (3.1, 3.9) 0.4 (-0.01, 0.8) 0.04 0.05
BMI (kg/m2) 16.8 (3.0) 16.3 (1.9) 0.4 (-0.7, 1.4) 0.35 0.48 0.6 (0.4, 0.7) 0.4 (0.2, 0.5) 0.2 (0.01, 0.3) 0.02 0.04
Lean body mass (kg)
Total Body 19.8 (2.3) 20.4 (2.8) -0.2 (-1.2, 0.8) 0.25 0.66 2.4 (2.2, 2.6) 2.3 (2.1, 2.5) 0.1 (-0.03, 0.3) 0.37 0.12
Legs 6.3 (1.0) 6.4 (1.2) -0.03 (0.4, 0.5) 0.55 0.87 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 0.04 (-0.03, 0.1) 0.37 0.24
Arms 1.6 (0.3) 1.7 (0.4) -0.1 (-0.2, 0.1) 0.10 0.20 0.3 (0.2, 0.3) 0.2 (0.2, 0.2) 0.04 (-0.01, 0.1) 0.10 0.01
Fat mass (kg)
Total Body 4.8 (3.1) 5.0 (3.1) 0.2 (-1.5, 1.1) 0.76 0.76 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2) 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) 0.003 0.001
Legs 2.1 (1.1) 2.2 (1.2) 0.1 (-0.6, 0.4) 0.70 0.73 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) 0.02 0.002
Arms 0.5 (0.4) 0.5 (0.4) -0.04 (-0.2, 0.1) 0.68 0.66 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.1 (0.03, 0.1) 0.1 (0.02, 0.1) <0.001 0.03
Peak torque (Nm)
PTEx60 40.9 (9.7) 44.4 (9.8) -1.6 (-5.2, 1.9) 0.09 0.36 10.5 (9.3, 11.8) 10.8 (9.7, 12.0) -0.6 (-2.1, 0.8) 0.75 0.40
PTFl60 19.6 (5.1) 24.4 (6.2) -4.1 (-6.4, -1.9) <0.001 <0.001 6.3 (5.7, 7.0) 5.2 (4.6, 5.9) 1.0 (0.1, 1.9) 0.02 0.03
PTEx180 31.9 (7.9) 36.1 (7.4) -2.8 (-5.7, 0.1) 0.01 0.06 7.4 (6.6, 8.2) 7.1 (6.4, 7.7) 0.3 (-0.6, 1.2) 0.54 0.57
PTFl180 16.9 (5.5) 22.1 (4.6) -4.5 (-6.5, -2.5) <0.001 <0.001 4.8 (4.2, 5.4) 4.1 (3.4, 4.7) 0.4 (0.5, 1.4) 0.10 0.35
Relative peak torque (Nm/Kg)
PTEx60 1.5 (0.3) 1.7 (0.3) -0.1 (-0.2, 0.03) 0.03 0.13 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) -3.4 (-6.9, 0.2) 0.26 0.06
PTFl60 0.7 (0.2) 0.9 (0.1) -0.2 (-0.2, -0.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (0.04, 0.1) 1.5 (-1.3, 4.3) 0.08 0.30
PTEx180 1.2 (0.2) 1.3 (0.2) -0.1 (-0.2. -0.03) 0.001 <0.01 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) -1.0 (-3.2, 1.3) 0.91 0.41
PTFl180 0.6 (0.2) 0.8 (0.1) -0.1 (-0.2, -0.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.1 (0.04, 0.1) 0.03 (0.02, 0.1) -1.0 (-3.4, 1.5) 0.048 0.44
Boys
  Baseline Between-group differences baseline Annual changes Between-group differences annual changes
  Cases (n = 76) Controls (n = 54) Adjusted difference (95% CI) P 1 -Value P 2 -Value Cases (n = 76) Controls (n = 54) Adjusted difference (95% CI) P 3 -Value P 4 -Value
Anthropometry (kg)
Height (cm) 129.4 (6.6) 130.0 (6.8) -0.2 (-1.8, 2.2) 0.62 0.83 5.5 (5.3, 5.6) 5.6 (5.4, 5.8) 0.1 (-0.2, 0.4) 0.32 0.53
Weight (kg) 28.4 (5.8) 27.8 (5.6) 1.2 (-0.6, 3.0) 0.54 0.20 3.5 (3.2, 3.8) 3.6 (3.3, 3.9) -0.004 (-0.5, 0.4) 0.71 0.88
BMI (kg/m2) 16.8 (2.5) 16.3 (2.1) 0.7 (-0.1, 1.5) 0.21 0.11 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) -0.1 (-0.3, 0.1) 0.30 0.32
Lean body mass (kg)
Total Body 21.8 (3.1) 21.6 (2.9) 0.5 (-0.4, 1.4) 0.72 0.27 2.2 (2.1, 2.3) 2.3 (2.2, 2.4) -0.1 (-0.2, 0.1) 0.28 0.60
Legs 6.8 (1.3) 6.8 (1.3) 0.2 (-0.2, 0.6) 0.81 0.27 1.0 (0.9, 1.0) 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) -0.1 (-0.1, -0.02) 0.05 0.16
Arms 1.8 (0.4) 1.8 (0.4) 0.04 (-0.1, 0.2) 0.90 0.47 0.3 (0.2, 0.3) 0.2 (0.2, 0.2) 0.03 (-0.004, 0.1) 0.16 0.08
Fat mass (kg)
Total Body 3.8 (3.0) 3.7 (2.6) 0.3 (-0.7, 1.3) 0.81 0.56 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.3) 0.1 (-0.2, 0.4) 0.62 0.57
Legs 1.7 (1.1) 1.6 (0.9) 0.1 (-0.2, 0.5) 0.66 0.40 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) 0.4 (0.4, 0.5) 0.01 (-0.1, 0.1) 0.64 0.90
Arms 0.3 (0.3) 0.4 (0.4) 0.1 (-0.2, 0.1) 0.27 0.41 0.1 (0.1, 0.1)) 0.1 (0.03, 0.1) 0.03 (-0.01, 0.1) 0.03 0.11
Peak torque (Nm)
PTEx60 43.9 (11.0) 44.6 (10.9) 0.6 (-2.5, 3.7) 0.71 0.70 9.8 (8.8, 10.7) 10.8 (9.6, 12.0) -0.8 (-2.5, 0.9) 0.17 0.36
PTFl60 21.8 (6.7) 25.0 (6.7) -2.4 (-4.5, -0.4) 0.01 0.02 7.1 (6.6, 7.7) 5.9 (5.3, 6.5) 1.9 (0.9, 2.9) 0.005 <0.001
PTEx180 35.9 (8.3) 35.8 (7.5) 1.1 (-1.1, 3.3) 0.90 0.34 7.0 (6.5, 7.5) 7.6 (7.0, 8.3) -0.4 (-1.3, 0.5) 0.15 0.42
PTFl180 19.3 (5.5) 23.0 (5.1) -3.2 (-4.9, -1.6) <0.001 <0.001 5.6 (5.1, 6.1) 4.3 (3.8, 4.8) 1.5 (0.5, 2.5) 0.001 0.004
Relative peak torque (Nm/Kg)
PTEx60 1.6 (0.2) 1.7 (0.3) -0.1 (-0.2, 0.01) <0.05 0.10 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) -0.5 (-4.6, 3.6) 0.82 0.80
PTFl60 0.8 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) -0.1 (-0.2, -0.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (0.06, 0.1) 3.2 (0.6, 5.8) <0.001 0.02
PTEx180 1.3 (0.2) 1.3 (0.2) -0.1 (-0.1, 0.02) 0.07 0.15 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (0.1, 0.01) 0.8 (-3.2, 1.6) 0.62 0.51
PTFl180 0.7 (0.2) 0.9 (0.1) -0.2 (-0.2, -0.1) <0.001 <0.001 0.1 (0.1, 0.1) 0.03 (0.03, 0.1) 3.1 (0.7, 5.5) <0.001 0.01
  1. Baseline data and annual changes in the subsample of girls and boys who were measured. Baseline data are presented as unadjusted means with standard deviation (SD). Group comparisons of baseline data were done unadjusted (p1) and adjusted for age at baseline (p2). Annual changes are presented as unadjusted means with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean difference, in annual changes, are presented as adjusted mean (95% CI). Group comparison of annual changes is done unadjusted (p3) and (p4) adjusted for age at baseline, baseline parameter, annual change in height and Tanner stage at follow-up. Statistically significant changes are bolded.