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Table 1 Lifestyle factors

From: A 3-year school-based exercise intervention improves muscle strength - a prospective controlled population-based study in 223 children

  Girls Boys
  Cases (n = 47) Controls (n = 46) P- value Cases (n = 76) Controls (n = 54) P- value
Baseline
Age 7.7 (0.6) 7.9 (0.6) 0.07 7.8 (0.6) 7.9 (0.6) 0.23
Lifestyle factors       
Excluding dairy products 0 3 (7%) 0.11 1 (1%) 7 (13%) <0.01
Drinking coffee 3 (6%) 1 (2%) 0.62 3 (4%) 0 0.27
Smoking 0 0 NA 0 0 NA
Alcohol 0 0 NA 0 0 NA
Tried to lose weight 1 (2%) 0 1.0 0 0 NA
Current disease 3 (6%) 3 (7%) 1.0 7 (9%) 3 (6%) 0.52
Ongoing medication 5 (11%) 2 (4%) 0.43 10 (13%) 4 (7%) 0.39
Previous medication 4 (9%) 2 (4%) 0.68 3 (4%) 5 (9%) 0.28
Previous Fracture 5 (11%) 6 (13%) 0.72 6 (8%) 6 (11%) 0.53
Tanner stage 1/2/3/4/5 47/0/0/0/0 46/0/0/0/0 NA 76/0/0/0/0 48/0/0/0/0 NA
Follow-up (after 3 years)
Age 10.7 (0.6) 11.1 (0.7) 0.003 10.8 (0.6) 11.1 (0.6) 0.01
Lifestyle factors       
Smoking 0 0 NA 0 0 NA
Alcohol 0 0 NA 0 0 NA
Tanner stage 1/2/3/4/5 (%) 17/18/9/2/0 10/20/14/2/0 0.12 65/9/2/0/0 11/26/14/1/0 <0.001
Menarche 3 (6%) 1 (2%) 0.62 —— —— ——
  1. Baseline and follow-up data in the subsample of girls and boys who were measured, presented as numbers and proportion (%) or as means with standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant differences are bolded.