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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study subjects

From: Visually assessed severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis is paradoxically associated with leg pain and objective walking ability

  All patients (n = 80) Moderate stenosis (n = 36) Severe stenosis (n = 44) P-value
Male/female 35/45 (43/56) 18/18 (50/50) 17/27 (39/61) 0.308
Marital status married or co-habiting 52 (65) 25 (69.5) 27 (61.3) 0.762
Current smoker 17 (21.3) 10 (27.7) 7 (16.0) 0.345
Previous lumbar operation 11 (13) 6 (16.7) 5 (11.4) 0.248
Depressedȝ 17 (21) 6 (16.7) 11 (25.0) 0.365
Minimal dural sac areaɫ 56.1 (21.9) 72.1 (18.0) 43.0 (15.2) 0.000
Age 63.0 (11.0) 62.0 (11.6) 64.0 (10.8) 0.413
BMI (kg/m2) 29.6 (4.0) 29.5 (4.4) 29.8 (3.5) 0.746
Number of somatic diseases 5.3 (3.0) 5.6 (3.2) 5.1 (2.8) 0.445
ODI 44.7 (16.1) 45.4 (18.0) 44.1 (14.4) 0.731
VAS overall 33.3 (23.9) 34.6 (24.7) 31.9 (25.0) 0.523
NRS LBP 4.1 (2.6) 4.72 (2.6) 3.59 (2.4) 0.059
NRS LP 6.49 (2.6) 7.33 (2.29) 5.80 (2.72) 0.008
BDI score 10.4 (6.1) 9.78 (6.86) 10.93 (5.546) 0.233
Walking distance (m) 545 (445) 421 (431) 646 (436) 0.021
Foraminal stenosis (normal/moderate/severe)§   53/39/8 55/36/9 0.971
Multilevel stenosis yes/no§   53/47 70/30 0.104
Lumbar fusion yes§   33 66 0.258
  1. Note: Except where indicated, data are numbers of patients, with percentages in parentheses or means, ± standard deviations in parentheses.
  2. ȝBDI 15 or more points, ɫat the most stenotic level, mean (mm2), ± standard deviations in parentheses. ODI = Oswestry Disability Index (0–100), VAS overall = Visual analog pain scale (0–100), NRS LBP = Numerical rating scale low back pain at rest, scale (0–10), NRS LP = Numerical rating scale leg pain at walking, scale (0–10), BDI = Beck Depression Inventory (0–63), §Percentages.