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Table 5 Associations between changing footwear due to joint pain and OA

From: Self-reported adult footwear and the risks of lower limb osteoarthritis: the GOAL case control study

  Footwear in 20s OR (95% CI)
Female Male
Knee OA cases Changed footwear due to knee pain (20-39y) High heels vs Low/medium (ref) 1.78 (0.67 - 4.69) N/D
Narrow heels vs Wide (ref) 1.49 (0.68 - 3.27) N/D
Thick soles vs Thin (ref) 1.73 (0.78 - 3.81) 0.77 (0.28 - 2.13)
Hard soles vs Soft (ref) 0.87 (0.39 - 1.91) 1.23 (0.26 - 5.81)
Hip OA cases Changed footwear due to hip pain (20-39y) High heels vs Low/medium (ref) 3.60 (1.45 - 8.94) N/D
Narrow heels vs Wide (ref) 2.64 (1.27 - 5.50) N/D
Thick soles vs Thin (ref) 0.36 (0.14 - 0.91) 3.01 (0.64 - 14.10)
Hard soles vs Soft (ref) 1.61 (0.62 - 4.23) 0.67 (0.18 - 2.58)
  1. Univariate post hoc subgroup analysis of changing footwear due to pain. Data taken from the additional questionnaire. Data from hip OA cases that changed footwear due to hip pain, and knee OA cases that changed footwear due to knee pain are shown. Participants that reported changing footwear due to knee or hip pain between the ages of 20 and 39 are shown with the footwear they reported using persistently during their 20’s. Persistent users were defined as >50% user per decade, and variable users were not assessed. Unadjusted OR and 95% CI are shown for the association between the site of pain and the type of footwear used. N/D – analysis not done. Reference groups (ref) indicated within table.