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Table 3 Women’s heels and risks of OA from the additional questionnaire

From: Self-reported adult footwear and the risks of lower limb osteoarthritis: the GOAL case control study

Additional questionnaire: Female heel types Groups Knee OA Hip OA
Control Knee OA Hip OA Univariate Adjusted Univariate Adjusted
20-29 yrs Low or medium (ref) 96 84 101 0.56 (0.32 - 0.98)* 0.74 (0.40 - 1.37) 0.50 (0.29 - 0.87)* 0.55 (0.31 - 0.99)*
High 51 25 27
Wide (ref) 57 55 72 0.54 (0.31 - 0.96)* 1.02 (0.57 - 1.82) 0.47 (0.27 - 0.80)** 0.68 (0.40 - 1.16)
Narrow 61 32 36
20-39 yrs Low or medium (ref) 90 82 96 0.64 (0.31 - 1.32) 0.77 (0.35 - 1.71) 0.63 (0.31 - 1.25) 0.71 (0.33 - 1.55)
High 24 14 16
Wide (ref) 93 57 76 0.62 (0.37 - 1.03) 0.86 (0.45 - 1.63) 0.50 (0.31 - 0.81)** 0.62 (0.34 - 1.13)
Narrow 82 46 49
  1. Persistent users of women’s heels in early adulthood (20–39 years) and adulthood (20 – 39 years) are presented. Numbers of users from ages 20–49 were too low for meaningful analysis. OR (95% CI) and aOR (adjusted for age, BMI in 20’s, occupational risk and previous injury to index joint) are shown. Persistent users were defined as >50% user in every decade, and variable users were not assessed. **-p < 0.01, *-p < 0.05. Reference groups (ref) indicated within table. Statistical significance is highlighted in bold.