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Table 2 Work and social/walking heels from the GOAL interview

From: Self-reported adult footwear and the risks of lower limb osteoarthritis: the GOAL case control study

GOAL interview: Female heel types Groups Risk of knee OA Risk of hip OA
Control Knee OA Hip OA Univariate Adjusted Univariate Adjusted
21-30 yrs Low or flat (ref) 374 379 401 0.52 (0.35 - 0.78)** 0.76 (0.46 - 1.27) 0.55 (0.37 - 0.81)** 0.82 (0.44 - 1.17)
High 78 41 46
Wide (ref) 393 394 408 0.78 (0.56 - 1.08) 0.99 (0.65 - 1.51) 0.69 (0.48 - 0.93)* 0.82 (0.54 - 1.24)
Narrow 101 79 70
21-50 yrs Low or flat (ref) 441 447 455 0.55 (0.33 - 0.90)* 0.53 (0.27 - 1.01) 0.43 (0.26 - 0.74)** 0.64 (0.34 - 1.18)
High 47 26 21
Wide (ref) 410 429 432 0.69 (0.45 - 1.04) 0.59 (0.35 - 1.00) 0.54 (0.35 - 0.84)** 0.50 (0.30 - 0.85)*
Narrow 60 43 34
  1. Data taken from the GOAL study interview. Predominant footwear (during work and also socialising or walking) and risks of OA (adjustments performed for age, BMI in 20’s, occupational risk and previous injury to index joint. **-p < 0.01, *-p < 0.05. Reference groups (ref) indicated within table. Statistical significance is highlighted in bold.