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Table 4 Change in kinematic variables (mean (sd)) in response to pain relief

From: An experimental study investigating the effect of pain relief from oral analgesia on lumbar range of motion, velocity, acceleration and movement irregularity

Flexion ALBP 95% CI CLBP 95% CI
Mean change in ROM (o) 0.1 (4.3) −2.3 – 2.6 0.1 (6.6) −4.9 – 4.6
Mean change in Positive Velocity (os−1) 0.3 (5.2) −3.2 – 2.6 2.6 (4.4) −0.6 – 5.7
Mean change Negative Velocity (os−1) 4.8 (4.7) 2.2 – 7.3 1.1 (6.1) −5.5 – 3.2
Mean change Positive Acceleration (os−2) 6.1 (12.3) −12.9 – 0.7 7.1 (8.1) 1.3 – 12.8
Mean change Negative Acceleration (os−2) 6.9 (11.7) 0.4 – 13.4 0.5 (7.9) −6.2 – 5.1
Extension     
Mean change in ROM (o) −0.3 (2.2) −0.9 – 1.5 1.0 (2.8) −0.6 – 2.6
Mean change in Positive Velocity (os−1) 0.3 (4.4) −2.8 – 2.0 1.8 (4.0) −0.5 – 4.1
Mean change Negative Velocity (os−1) 0.6 (1.9) −0.5 – 1.6 2.1 (4.8) −4.9 – 0.6
Mean change Positive Acceleration (os−2) 1.7 (9.6) −6.8 – 3.4 4.8 (8.4) −0.1 – 9.7
Mean change Negative Acceleration (os−2) 1.8 (9.2) −3.2 – 6.7 5.1 (8.0) −9.8 – -0.5
Side-bending     
Mean change in ROM (o) −0.3 (1.6) −0.3 – 0.9 1.0 (2.0) 0.3 – 1.9
Mean change in Positive Velocity (os−1) 1.1 (3.2) −2.4 – 0.1 2.1 (3.0) 0.9 – 3.4
Mean change Negative Velocity (os−1) 0.7 (2.9) −0.4 – 1.9 2.7 (3.3) 1.3 – 4.0
Mean change Positive Acceleration (os−2) 2.1 (7.5) −5.1 – 0.8 6.7 (7.1) 3.8 – 9.7
Mean change Negative Acceleration (os−2) 3.1 (8.6) −0.3 – 6.5 6.9 (9.6) 3.0 – 10.9
Rotation     
Mean change in ROM (o) 0.8 (2.0) −2.1 – 0.5 −0.2 (2.9) −1.7 – 1.3
Mean change in Positive Velocity (os−1) 0.2 (2.0) −1.5 – 1.1 0.0 (2.1) −1.1 – 1.1
Mean change Negative Velocity (os−1) 1.2 (1.7) 0.1 – 2.3 −0.7 (3.1) −2.3 – 0.9
Mean change Positive Acceleration (os−2) 1.8 (4.8) −4.9 – 1.2 −1.4 (7.8) −5.5 – 2.6
Mean change Negative Acceleration (os−2) 1.1 (4.4) −1.7 – 3.9 −0.7 (6.8) −4.2 – 2.8
Lifting     
Mean change in ROM (o) 0.2 (5.5) −3.1 – 3.5 0.4 (4.5) −2.5 – 3.3
Mean change in Positive Velocity (os−1) 1.5 (5.7) −4.9 – 1.9 −0.2 (9.7) −6.3 – 5.9
Mean change Negative Velocity (os−1) 0.3 (5.2) −2.9 – 3.4 −0.6 (4.8) −3.7 – 2.4
Mean change Positive Acceleration (os−2) 3.0 (10.9) −9.6 – 3.6 3.2 (16.3) −7.1 – 13.6
Mean change Negative Acceleration (os−2) 0.0 (13.0) −7.9 – 7.8 3.3 (12.6) −4.7 – 11.4
  1. ROM, range of motion; ALBP, acute low back pain; CLBP, chronic low back pain.
  2. Note: A positive value represents an increase in the specific variable, negative a reduction.