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Table 3 Comparison between stiffness of osteosynthesis with 2C-shaped nails with the 3rd from antero- lateral “3CL” (Titanium Nails, Santech Nord® Company) and 2C-shaped nails with the 3rd from antero- medial “3CM” (Titanium Nails, Santech Nord® Company)

From: Modification of elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a 3rd nail in a femoral spiral fracture model – results of biomechanical testing and a prospective clinical study

  3C-shaped nails with 3rd from antero-lateral“3CL” (n = 8)   3C-shaped nails with 3rd from antero-medial“3CM” (n = 8)  
  Mean value (SD)   Mean value (SD) p value
3CL more stable than 3CM     
Anterior-posterior 1.23 (0.62) N m/mm > 0.66 (0.32) N m/mm <0.001
Lateral-medial 0.88 (0.30) N m/mm > 0.71 (0.23) N m/mm 0.028
Internal rotation 0.21 (0.07) N m/° > 0.14 (0.03) N m/° <0.001
Compression 9° (decrease in length) 0.61 (0.43) mm < 1.54 (1.24) mm 0.004
3CL less stable than 3CM     
Posterior-anterior 1.03 (0.97) N m/mm < 2.87 (2.01) N m/mm 0.001
External rotation 0.19 (0.12) Nm/° < 0.30 (0.13) N m/° 0.003
No statistical significant difference     
Compression 0° (decrease in length) 0.03 (0.03) mm ~ 0.02 (0.01) mm n.s
Medial - lateral 1.10 (0.53) N m/mm ~ 1.09 (0.47) N m/mm n.s
  1. The Holm-Bonferroni correction was applied in view of the multiple series of data. Smaller length changes in compression tests reflect a higher stability. Special terms for biomechanical directions corresponding to the most important clinical problems in elastic stable intramedullary nailing of complex fractures: shortening (= compression 9°), recurvation (= anterior-posterior) and varus (= medial-lateral) as the most important clinical problems in elastic stable intramedullary nailing of complex fractures.
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