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Table 4 Summary of translation, cultural adaptation and validation studies of the ASES

From: Reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, patient self-report section

  Number of subjects (age range, years) Language/validation study Time interval between the first and the second measurement Reproducibility ICC (95% Cl) Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) Convergent validity ASES and other questionnaire Convergent validity ASES and SF-36 PCS Convergent validity ASES and SF-36 MCS
Piitulainen K et al. present data n = 105 Finnish 2 weeks 0.83 (0.70 to 0.90), n = 55 0.88 (0.84 to 0.91) SST   
r = 0.73 r = 0.57 r = 0.21
(18-88)
0.79 (0.69 to 0.86), n = 105 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 ns
Celik D et al. [6] n = 63 Turkish 3-7 days 0.94 0.88 SPADI   
(18–74)
r = – 0.82 r = 0.02 r = 0.53
p < 0.001 p = 0.82 p < 0.000
Yahia A et al. [12] n = 80 Arabic 1-3 days n = 30 0.96 (0.92 to 0.98) 0.76 SPADI - -
(20-80) r = –0.80   
p < 0.001   
Padua R et al. 2010 n = 50 Italian 7 days n = 20 0.91 0.85 DASH   
(33-78) r = –0.92 r = 0.48 r = –0.20
p < 0.02 p < 0.01 ns
OSQ   
r = 0.78   
p < 0.02   
Goldhahn J et al. [7] n = 118 German 7 days 0.93 (0.90 to 0.95) 0.96 SPADI   
r = 0.92 r = 0.64 Overall SF-36
(33 to 89)
DASH   r = 0.66
r = 0.84   
Kocher et al. [9] n = 1066 Validation study English 4 weeks 0.94 (n = 56) age range 15-78 years 0.61 instability 0.64 rotator cuff disease 0.62 arthritis - SF-12 SF-12
  r = 0.32-0.58 r = –0.09-0.11
(13-95)
  p < 0.001-0.002 p = 0.27-0.67
Michener et al. [10] n = 63 Validation study English 24 to 72 hours, and after 3 to 4 weeks 0.84 (0.75 to 0.91) 0.86 Penn Score   
(20-81)
r = 0.78 r = 0.40 r = 0.15
  p < 0.01 p = 0.001 p = 0.25
  1. ASES American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, ICC intra-class correlation coefficient, Cl Confidence interval, SST, Simple Shoulder Test, SPADI Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, DASH Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, OSQ Oxford Shoulder Questionnaire, Penn Score the University of Pennsylvania Shoulder Score, SF-36 Short Form 36 Health Survey, PCS Physical Component Summary, MCS Mental Component Summary, SF-12 Short Form 12 Health Survey.