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Table 3 Association of patients expectations jointly with changes in HRQoL at 12 months adjusting for baseline HRQoL scores and other covariables by general linear models (n = 892)

From: A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement

Covariables and expectations Changes in WOMAC Changes in SF-12
  Pain Stiffness Function PCS MCS
  β p value β p value β p value β p value β p value
Baseline HRQoL 0.82 <0.0001 0.94 <0.0001 0.72 <0.0001 -0.75 <0.0001 -0.69 <0.0001
BMI        -0.25 0.0175   
Joint           
Knee Ref. Ref. Ref.     
Hip 4.16 0.0013 5.65 <0.0001 3.24 0.0207     
Highest degree           
Secondary education/ University 6.60 0.0011      3.91 0.0011   
Primary education 3.09 0.0517      *Ref.   
None Ref.         
Previous intervention           
Yes      -3.91 0.0064     
No      Ref.     
Expectations           
Pain Relief           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref.    Ref.
High 10.52 <0.0001 6.63 0.0079 11.14 <0.0001    4.96 0.0081
Very high 10.22 <0.0001 7.95 0.0009 11.99 <0.0001    6.97 <0.0001
Ability to walk           
Low or High Ref.    Ref. Ref.   
Very high 3.32 0.0370    3.78 0.0248 3.89 <0.0001   
R 2 0.45 0.57 0.35 0.24 0.42
  1. Ref: reference group.
  2. *In this case there has been grouped the reference group (primary and none education).
  3. Baseline Score direction: WOMAC, higher scores indicating worse HRQoL; SF-12, higher scores indicating better HRQoL.
  4. BMI, Body Mass Index; WOMAC, Westen Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; SF-12, Short Form 12; PCS, physical component summary of the SF-12; MCS, mental component summary of the SF-12. Ref: reference group.
  5. Changes are calculated so that a positive value indicates improvement and a negative value, worsening in all questionnaires.