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Table 2 Association of patient expectations individually with change in HRQoL at 12 months by general linear models (N = 892)

From: A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement

Expectations Change in WOMAC Change in SF-12
  Pain Stiffness Function PCS MCS
  β p value β p value β p value β p value β p value
Pain Relief           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High 11.29 <0.001 9.41 0.012 9.10 0.001 6.30 0.001 4.51 0.066
Very high 14.43 <0.001 15.64 <0.001 12.10 <0.001 9.46 <0.001 4.584 0.049
Daily activities           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High 5.47 0.012 6.96 0.015 5.13 0.017 3.82 0.008 0.35 0.849
Very high 8.11 <0.001 10.95 <0.001 7.37 0.001 7.79 <0.001 0.10 0.957
Ability to walk           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High 3.41 0.235 4.21 0.267 4.28 0.129 4.53 0.017 1.58 0.515
Very high 10.90 <0.001 13.87 <0.001 11.01 <0.001 9.50 <0.001 4.08 0.084
Interact with others           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High 4.02 0.050 1.21 0.651 3.88 0.055 3.29 0.013 2.62 0.116
Very high 5.31 0.012 8.82 0.001 6.74 0.001 6.20 <0.001 0.58 0.726
Psychological well-being           
Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
High 2.97 0.176 0.55 0.848 1.75 0.419 3.68 0.011 0.70 0.701
Very high 8.39 <0.001 10.17 0.001 8.33 <0.001 6.67 <0.001 3.09 0.093
  1. Ref: reference group.
  2. This general linear models have been adjusted for the corresponding HRQoL baseline scores.
  3. WOMAC, Westen Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; SF-12, Short Form 12; PCS, physical component summary of the SF-12; MCS, mental component summary of the SF-12.
  4. Changes are calculated so that a positive value indicates improvement and a negative value, worsening in all questionnaires.