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Table 4 Associations* between cortisol measures and the presence of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain in persons without and with a lifetime depressive and/or anxiety disorder

From: Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: partly masked by depressive and anxiety disorders

  Chronic pain without LDA (n = 60) vs. controls (n = 264) Chronic pain with LDA (n = 411) vs. controls (n = 264) Chronic pain with LDA vs. chronic pain without LDAc
  OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P P
At awakening
Sociodemographica 0.67 (0.47, 0.94) 0.02 0.94 (0.79, 1.12) 0.50 0.04
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.66 (0.46, 0.93) 0.02 0.90 (0.74, 1.09) 0.27 0.07
AUCg
Sociodemographica 0.61 (0.43, 0.89) 0.009 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 0.68 0.003
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.62 (0.42, 0.90) 0.01 0.96 (0.79, 1.18) 0.72 0.02
AUCi      
Sociodemographica 0.95 (0.69, 1.32) 0.77 1.15 (0.96, 1.38) 0.14 0.24
Lifestyle & diseaseb 1.00 (0.71, 1.40) 0.99 1.11 (0.91, 1.36) 0.30 0.51
Mean evening level
Sociodemographica 0.89 (0.61, 1.29) 0.53 0.96 (0.79, 1.17) 0.68 0.67
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.93 (0.64, 1.33) 0.68 0.82 (0.66, 1.02) 0.07 0.49
Diurnal slope
Sociodemographica 0.71 (0.49, 1.01) 0.06 1.03 (0.85, 1.24) 0.80 0.03
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.70 (0.49, 0.99) 0.05 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 0.69 0.02
Cortisol suppression ratio
Sociodemographica 0.89 (0.65, 1.21) 0.44 0.95 (0.81, 1.11) 0.51 0.67
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.86 (0.62, 1.19) 0.36 0.99 (0.83, 1.17) 0.87 0.40
  1. LDA = Lifetime depressive and/or anxiety disorder.
  2. *Based on adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses using persons without chronic pain and without LDA as the reference group (n = 264); OR per 1 SD increase; At awakening: SD = 6.78, AUCg: SD = 6.87, AUCi: SD = 6.39, mean evening level: SD = 3.43, diurnal slope: SD = 0.45, cortisol suppression ratio: SD = 1.58.
  3. aAdjusted for awakening time, working on day of sampling, month of sampling, ≤6 hours of sleep, age, sex, years of education; badditionally adjusted for body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and chronic diseases; cbased on the same multinomial logistic regression analyses using chronic pain without LDA as the reference group.