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Table 3 Associations* between cortisol measures and pain intensity and pain disability in subjects with chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain (n = 471)

From: Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: partly masked by depressive and anxiety disorders

  Pain intensity Pain disability
  Beta P Beta P
At awakening
Sociodemographica 0.05 0.32 0.01 0.86
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.04 0.42 0.00 0.94
Depression and anxietyc 0.02 0.72 -0.01 0.86
AUCg
Sociodemographica 0.01 0.86 -0.05 0.28
Lifestyle & diseaseb -0.01 0.92 -0.05 0.34
Depression and anxietyc -0.03 0.54 -0.06 0.22
AUCi
Sociodemographica -0.05 0.32 -0.06 0.21
Lifestyle & diseaseb -0.06 0.18 -0.06 0.23
Depression and anxietyc -0.07 0.15 -0.06 0.23
Mean evening level
Sociodemographica 0.00 0.99 -0.03 0.59
Lifestyle & diseaseb -0.01 0.80 -0.01 0.81
Depression and anxietyc -0.01 0.79 -0.01 0.93
Diurnal slope
Sociodemographica 0.06 0.21 0.03 0.61
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.05 0.29 0.01 0.78
Depression and anxietyc 0.03 0.57 0.00 0.94
Cortisol suppression ratio
Sociodemographica 0.00 0.98 0.02 0.68
Lifestyle & diseaseb 0.01 0.82 0.02 0.67
Depression and anxietyc 0.01 0.89 0.01 0.76
  1. *Based on adjusted linear regression analyses; aadjusted for awakening time, working on day of sampling, month of sampling, ≤6 hours of sleep, age, sex, and years of education; badditionally adjusted for body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and chronic diseases; cadditionally adjusted for lifetime depressive/anxiety disorder and antidepressants.