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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for persistent chronic widespread pain in HUNT3

From: Prevalence and long-term predictors of persistent chronic widespread pain in the general population in an 11-year prospective study: the HUNT study

Baseline variables HUNT2 N = 3,770 CWP in HUNT3 N = 1,997 Model 1 – crude model Model 2 – adjusted model
  N (%)   OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI]
Sex Female [ref.] 2,540 (67) 1,447 (74) 1.00 1.00
  Male 1,230 (33) 520 (26) 0.53 [0.46-0.61] 0.51 [0.44-0.59]
Age, 20–39 yrs [ref.] 643 (17) 342 (17) 1.00 1.00
Age, 40–59 yrs (<40 yrs [ref.]) 2,388 (63) 1,323 (66) 1.12 [0.94-1.34] 1.03 [0.85-1.25]
  ≥60 yrs 739 (20) 332 (17) 0.76 [0.62-0.94] 0.63 [0.50-0.81]
HADS (A/D <8 [ref.]) 2,544 (67) 1,276 (64) 1.00 1.00
HADS Depression (D) ≥8 220 (6) 120 (6) 1.28 [0.96-1.69] 1.12 [0.84-1.50]
  Anxiety (A) ≥8 578 (15) 343 (17) 1.35 [1.12-1.62] 1.24 [1.02-1.50]
  Depression ≥8 AND Anxiety ≥8 428 (11) 260 (13) 1.48 [1.19-1.82] 1.18 [0.95-1.47]
Sleep problems, never [ref.] 2,544 (64) 1,195 (60) 1.00 1.00
  Often 1,345 (36) 802 (40) 1.49 [1.30-1.71] 1.30 [1.12-1.51]
Smoke status, never smoking [ref.] 1,315 (35) 667 (33) 1.00 1.00
  Ex. smoker 1,235 (33) 665 (33) 1.23 [1.05-1.45] 1.18 [1.00-1.39]
  Current daily smoker 1,220 (32) 665 (33) 1.14 [0.97-1.33] 1.10 [0.93-1.31]
BMI normal 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 [ref.] 1,262 (33) 633 (32) 1.00 1.00
  Underweight <18.5 kg/m2 21 (0.6) 7 (0.35) 0.46 [0.18-1.15] 0.43 [0.17-1.10]
  Overweight 25–29.9 kg/m2 1,730 (46) 893 (45) 1.17 [1.01-1.36] 1.18 [1.01-1.37]
  Obese ≥30 kg/m2 757 (20) 464 (23) 1.68 [1.39-2.02] 1.66 [1.37-2.01]
Alcohol-monthly use, abstainers [ref.] 375 (10) 205 (10) 1.00 1.00
  0 time a month 1,139 (30) 615 (31) 0.94 [0.74-1.20] 0.97 [0.76-1.24]
  1-7 times a month 2,046 (54) 1,077 (54) 0.95 [0.76-1.19] 1.01 [0.79-1.28]
  8 times or more a month 210 (6) 100 (5) 0.85 [0.60-1.21] 0.90 [0.62-1.29]
Education, primary school, [ref.] 1,546 (41) 824 (41) 1.00 1.00
  High school 1,661 (44) 900 (45) 1.03 [0.89-1.20] 1.10 [0.94-1.28]
  University/college 563 (15) 273 (14) 0.76 [0.62-0.93] 0.86 [0.70-1.06]
Exercise, low/no [ref.] 2,487 (66) 1,338 (67) 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 1,283 (34) 659 (33) 0.94 [0.82-1.07] 0.97 [0.84-1.12]
Marital status - single [ref.] 925 (25) 505 (25) 1.00 1.00
  Married 2,845 (75) 1,492 (75) 0.92 [0.79-1.07] 0.94 [0.80-1.10]
Disease Chronic, no [ref.] 1,806 (48) 830 (42) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 1,964 (52) 1,167 (58) 1.89 [1.66-2.16] 1.75 [1.53-2.01]
  1. Model 1: Crude – age and sex adjusted.
  2. Model 2: All variables included.
  3. Only complete cases included.