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Table 6 Logistic regression models without and with V LF for having a hip fracture in a population-based sample of older women

From: Association between low-frequency ultrasound and hip fractures - comparison with DXA-based BMD

  OR (95% CI) p-value
Lifestyle-related risk factors1    0.002*
TUG ≥ 11 s vs. less (referent) 3.4 (1.2 - 9.9) 0.026
Low PA vs. moderate to high (referent) 2.8 (1.0 - 7.5) 0.046
Coffee consumption > 3 cups/day vs. less (referent) 0.3 (0.1 - 1.0) 0.051
Lifestyle-related risk factors and VLF 2    0.001*
Low VLF (0-25%) vs. Moderate or high (25-100%) (referent) 3.3 (1.2 - 9.0) 0.018
Low PA vs. moderate to high (referent) 3.1 (1.1 - 8.5) 0.028
TUG ≥ 11 s vs. less (referent) 3.1 (1.0 - 8.9) 0.042
  1. Odds ratios (OR) are calculated compared to the NF group. TUG “Timed Up & Go” test, PA physical activity, CI confidence interval. The number of subjects in the analyses was Hip Fx n = 18, NF n = 296. 1Age, BMI, TUG, PA, hypertension, coffee consumption, and smoking were included in the analysis to form the best model, 2The best model after including VLF in the analysis, *p-value for the full model.