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Table 3 Relationship between frailty index and falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations during the third year of follow-up or during the 3-year follow-up for the whole group and age subgroups

From: Frailty index of deficit accumulation and falls: data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort

Outcomes n (%) Age-adjusted models Fully-adjusted models
Statistics (95% CI)a P-value Statistics (95% CI)a P-value
Falls b 1,068 (31.89) 1.03 (1.03-1.04) <0.001 1.02 (1.02-1.03) <0.001
  Women < 65 years 395 (31.98) 1.03 (1.02-1.04) <0.001 1.02 (1.01-1.03) 0.001
  Women ≥ 65 years 673 (31.84) 1.03 (1.02-1.04) <0.001 1.03 (1.02-1.04) <0.001
Fractures c
  All fractures d 238 (6.36) 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.001 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.001
  Women < 65 years 71 (5.35) 1.02 (1.002-1.04) 0.032 1.02 (1.00-1.04) 0.019
  Women ≥ 65 years 167 (6.92) 1.02 (1.01-1.03) 0.002 1.02 (1.01-1.03) 0.002
  Hip fracture 18 (0.51)g 1.04 (1.00-1.07) 0.041 1.04 (1.00-1.07) 0.051
  Women < 65 years 4 (0.30) k k k k
  Women ≥ 65 years 14 (0.58) 1.03 (0.99-1.07) 0.201 1.02 (0.99-1.07) 0.230
  Spine fracture 28 (0.79)h 1.04 (1.01-1.07) 0.004 1.03 (1.00-1.06) 0.024
  Women < 65 years 6 (0.45) k k k k
  Women ≥ 65 years 22 (0.91) 1.04 (1.01-1.07) 0.009 1.03 (1.00-1.06) 0.083
  Other fractures 208 (5.56)i 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.001 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.001
  Women < 65 years 65 (4.90) 1.02 (1.00-1.04) 0.021 1.02 (1.00-1.05) 0.027
  Women ≥ 65 years 143 (5.92) 1.02 (1.00-1.03) 0.008 1.02 (1.00-1.03) 0.015
Death e 107 (2.69) 1.04 (1.03-1.06) <0.001 1.05 (1.03-1.06) <0.001
  Women < 65 years 12 (0.87) 1.04 (0.99-1.08) 0.093 1.05 (1.01-1.10) 0.028
  Women ≥ 65 years 95 (3.65) 1.05 (1.03-1.06) <0.001 1.05 (1.03-1.06) <0.001
Overnight hospitalizations f 347 (8.75)j 1.03 (1.02-1.04) <0.001 1.02 (1.02-1.03) <0.001
  Women < 65 years 75 (5.43)j 1.07 (1.06-1.08) <0.001 1.05 (1.04-1.06) <0.001
  Women ≥ 65 years 272 (10.52)j 1.02 (1.01-1.03) <0.001 1.02 (1.01-1.02) <0.001
  1. aStatistics included odds ratio (OR) for falls and death, hazard ratio (HR) for fractures, and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for overnight hospitalization; CI: confidence interval; All statistics measured a change of 0.01 on the frailty index.
  2. bAreas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) are 0.61 for age-adjusted model and 0.69 for fully-adjusted model respectively; Fully-adjusted models used binary logistic regression, adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, education, and baseline falls.
  3. cCox hazards regression; Fully-adjusted models were adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, education, baseline fracture and family history of fractures.
  4. dIncluded hip, spine, pelvis, ribs, clavicle, wrist, upper arm, ankle, upper leg and lower leg fractures.
  5. eAUC are 0.79 and 0.80 for age-adjusted model and fully-adjusted model respectively; Fully-adjusted models used binary logistic regression, adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, and education.
  6. fPoisson regression; Fully-adjusted models were adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, education, and baseline overnight hospitalization.
  7. gAnalysis excluded women with nonhip fractures.
  8. hAnalysis excluded women with nonspine fractures.
  9. iAnalysis excluded women with hip and spine fractures.
  10. jFor participants spent at least one night in hospital during the third year of follow-up.
  11. kAnalyses could not be conducted because of the limited sample size.