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Table 2 Coding of individual variables in the frailty index and their odds ratios of falls during the third year of follow-up

From: Frailty index of deficit accumulation and falls: data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort

Variables Coding Falls
OR (95% CI, P-value)a n (%)b
Co-morbidities (n = 15)
Taking/taken five or more medicationsc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.30 (1.07-1.59) 0.008 607 (15.23)
Has chronic bronchitis or emphysemac Yes = 1, no = 0 1.40 (1.08-1.81) 0.012 307 (7.93)
Has osteoarthritis or degenerative joint diseasec Yes = 1, no = 0 1.53 (1.32-1.78) <0.001 1,354 (35.05)
Has rheumatoid arthritisc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.45 (1.16-1.81) <0.001 447 (11.57)
Suffers from strokec Yes = 1, no = 0 2.16 (1.55-3.00) <0.001 193 (4.92)
Has ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s diseasec Yes = 1, no = 0 2.08 (1.32-3.28) 0.002 82 (2.09)
Has celiac diseasec Yes = 1, no = 0 1.20 (0.50-2.88) 0.683 25 (0.64)
Has Parkinson’s diseasec Yes = 1, no = 0 3.09 (0.98-9.74) 0.054 18 (0.46)
Has multiple sclerosisc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.28 (0.52-3.17) 0.596 22 (0.56)
Has cancerc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.06 (0.86-1.32) 0.570 502 (12.77)
Has diabetes (type-1)c Yes = 1, no = 0 1.44 (1.00-2.08) 0.053 165 (4.22)
Has hypertensionc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 0.077 2,025 (51.63)
Has heart diseasec Yes = 1, no = 0 1.52 (1.25-1.86) <0.001 623 (16.01)
Has high cholesterolc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.15 (1.00-1.33) 0.050 1,752 (45.03)
Self rating of healthd Excellent = 0, very good = 0.25, good = 0.5, fair = 0.75, poor = 1 2.77 (1.99-3.86) <0.001 73 (1.85)
Activities of daily living (ADL) (n = 12)
Limitations in vigorous activitiesc Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 1.67 (1.37-2.05) <0.001 1,735 (45.49)
Limitations in moderate activitiesd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 2.04 (1.65-2.52) <0.001 569 (14.59)
Limitations in lifting or carrying groceriesd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 2.01 (1.61-2.52) <0.001 416 (10.62)
Limitations in climbing one flight of stairsd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 2.22 (1.76-2.80) <0.001 374 (9.69)
Limitations bending, kneeling or stoopingd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 2.02 (1.66-2.46) <0.001 781 (20.12)
Limitations walking one hundred yardsd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 1.97 (1.56-2.48) <0.001 378 (9.88)
Limitations in bathing or dressing yourselfd Yes = 1, a little = 0.5, no = 0 1.88 (1.37-2.59) <0.001 154 (3.93)
Needs arms to help stand up from a chaird Yes = 1, no = 0 1.83 (1.57-2.13) <0.001 1,495 (37.98)
Number of days to walk at least 20 minutes in the past 30 daysd ≤2 days = 1, >2 days = 0 1.21 (1.02-1.43) 0.025 1,081 (27.50)
Self rating of mobilityd Unable = 1, some problem = 0.5, no problem = 0 3.05 (2.22-4.18) <0.001 1 (0.03)
Self rating of self-cared Unable = 1, some problem = 0.5, no problem = 0 6.83 (3.75-12.43) <0.001 4 (0.10)
Self rating of usual activitiesd Unable = 1, some problem = 0.5, no problem = 0 3.60 (2.68-4.84) <0.001 56 (1.41)
Symptoms and sig ns (n = 6)
Feels full of lifed All the time = 0, most of time = 0.25, some time = 0.5, a little time = 0.75, none of time = 1 3.61 (2.66-4.89) <0.001 228 (5.84)
Has a lot of energyd All the time = 0, most of time = 0.25, some time = 0.5, a little time = 0.75, none of time = 1 3.91 (2.88-5.31) <0.001 263 (6.73)
Feels worn outd All the time = 1, most of time = 0.75, some time = 0.5, a little time = 0.25, none of time = 0 3.73 (2.73-5.09) <0.001 123 (3.15)
Feels tiredd All the time = 1, most of time = 0.75, some time = 0.5, a little time = 0.25, none of time = 0 4.14 (2.98-5.76) <0.001 173 (4.40)
Self rating of pain/discomfortd Extremely = 1, moderate = 0.5, no = 0 3.22 (2.43-4.28) <0.001 242 (6.15)
Unintentional weight loss of 10 poundsc Yes = 1, no = 0 1.42 (1.12-1.80) 0.004 433 (11.01)
Healthcare utilization (n = 1)
Times of visiting a healthcare provider to get medical care in the past yearc None = 0, 1–2 times = 0.33, 3–5 times = 0.67, 6 or more times = 1 1.39 (1.28-1.51) <0.001 842 (21.43)
  1. aOR: odds ratio, adjusted for baseline age; CI: confidence interval.
  2. bFor participants whose score was 1 in individual variable.
  3. cOrdinal logistic regression results, p-values of tests for the proportional odds assumption were >0.05.
  4. dBinary logistic regression since proportional odds assumption was not met.