0.5 with a lower boundary of 95% CI >0.2. Odds ratios (to define cut-off points) and the distribution of the classificator, numbers of positive tests, were calculated. Results Three out of ten tests showed "excellent" (wK 0.82 to 0.86), five out of ten tests showed "substantial" (wK 0.69 to 0.79) and two out of ten tests showed "moderate" (wK 0.54 to 0.59) reliability. Results were comparable in the sitting and standing positions. On average, three out of five tests were rated positive in patients and one out of five tests was rated positive in healthy controls. An odds ratio of 13.3 to 18.6 was obtained using ≥2/5 tests as a cut-off point. Conclusion Visual assessment by physiotherapists of head-eye movement control tests is reliable. The test battery is able to discriminate between patients with chronic neck pain and healthy controls. There were no differences in performance between the sitting and standing positions. The test battery can therefore be reduced to five tests. Further research is needed to identify the test-retest stability and responsiveness."/>
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Table 5 Results inter-observer reliability: weighted kappa (wK) 95% confidence interval (95%CI), percentage agreement (% Agreement)

From: Head-Eye movement control tests in patients with chronic neck pain; Inter-observer reliability and discriminative validity

Tests: Sitting position wK 95% CI % Agreement
Eye movements 0.72 0.55-0.88 73
Gaze stability 0.86 0.75-0.97 85
Sequential head and eye movement 0.86 0.76-0.97 83
Eye movements in 45° relative neck rotation to the right 0.54 0.29-0.79 69
Eye movements in 45° relative neck rotation to the left 0.79 0.62-0.97 85
Tests: Standing position wK 95% CI % Agreement
Eye movements 0.78 0.61-0.95 85
Gaze stability 0.59 0.36-0.82 66
Sequential head and eye movement 0.69 0.53-0.85 61
Eye movements in 45° relative neck rotation to the right 0.82 0.67-0.96 85
Eye movements in 45° relative neck rotation to the left 0.70 0.50-0.90 80