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Table 4 Clinical study results for stem cell therapy

From: Stem cell therapy for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head: a systematic review

Study Patient reported outcomes Progression Lesion volume Hip survivorship
  Outcome     
Hernigou et al. [35] HHS (13 years) Improved compared to baseline score (88 vs 70)^   Decreased lesion volume (12 cm3 vs 26 cm3)^ 17.6% conversion rate to THA at 13 years follow up
Wang et al. [9] HHS Improved compared to baseline score (83.7 ± 10.34 vs 71.2 ± 6.56)* 23.7% rate of progression to higher ARCO class   11.8% conversion to THA at 27.6 months
Gangji et al. [2] Lequesne index Improved compared to CD (SC group 4.8 ± 1.8, CD group NR)* Decreased progression (23.1% vs 72.7%)* Decreased lesion volume at 24 months (SC group volume decreased 42%, CD group volume decreased 1%)*, no improvement at 60 months (SC group volume decreased 42%, CD group volume decreased 22%)# No improvement in hip survivorship (57.2 months vs 50.2 months)
  VAS pain Improved compared to CD (SC group 20.8 ± 7.7, CD group NR)*    
  WOMAC No improvement compared to CD (raw score NR)    
Sen et al. [14] HHS (12 months) Improved compared to CD (83.65 ± 8.04 vs 76.68 ± 13.86)*    Improved hip survivorship (51.85 ± 0.15 weeks vs. 46.62 ± 2.34 weeks)*
Zhao et al. [8] HHS ARCO 1C,2B,2C (60 months) Improved compared to CD (raw score NR)* Decreased progression (3.8% vs. 22.7%)* Decreased lesion volume in ARCO 2B (6.5% vs 13.3% of FH), and ARCO 2C (13.8% vs 29.3%)* Decreased rate of conversion to THA/vascularized bone graft in the SC group compared to CD (3.7% vs. 22.7%)*
  1. HHS = Harris Hip Score, ARCO = Association Research Circulation Osseous classification, VAS = visual analog scale pain score, WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index, ^ = no statistics reported, * = p < 0.05, # = p = 0.06, CD = core decompression, NR = not reported, FH = femoral head, THA = total hip arthroplasty.